Detection of influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibiting reduced susceptibility to the novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir in Japan, December 2018.

Detection of influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibiting reduced susceptibility to the novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir in Japan, December 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019 Jan;24(3): Authors: Takashita E, Kawakami C, Morita H, Ogawa R, Fujisaki S, Shirakura M, Miura H, Nakamura K, Kishida N, Kuwahara T, Mitamura K, Abe T, Ichikawa M, Yamazaki M, Watanabe S, Odagiri T, On Behalf Of The Influenza Virus Surveillance Group Of Japan Abstract The novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir marboxil was approved for the treatment of influenza virus infection in Japan in February 2018. Two influenza A(H3N2) viruses carrying an I38T substitution in the polymerase acidic subunit (PA) were detected in baloxavir-treated children in December 2018. This mutation is known to confer reduced susceptibility to baloxavir, and the two mutant viruses exhibited 76- and 120-fold reduced susceptibility to baloxavir. PMID: 30670142 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Related Links:

Conclusions: QIV was immunogenic against the additional B lineage strain (B Victoria) without significantly compromising the immunogenicity of the other three vaccine strains, therefore, adding a second B lineage strain in QIV could broaden protection against influenza B infection in this age group. As the QIV immunogenicity differed regarding the four antigens, formulation adjustments to increase the antigen concentration of the serotypes that have lower immunogenicity could increase effectiveness. Prior season vaccination was associated with lower antibody response to a new vaccine, although not consistent through the vaccine strains.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
A recent study in this journal reported the cross-species transmission of a novel swine H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) to humans and suggested a heavy threat from the H3N2 IAVs (1). Vaccination remains the primary option for the control of influenza, but the protective efficiency of seasonal vaccines against H3N2 IAVs are suboptimal. Recent human H3N2 IAVs have shown poor growth in MDCK cells and eggs due to their low receptor binding affinities. A high yield strain is required for the vaccine manufacture, however, mutations of vaccine seeds during egg adaptation has reported to reduce the vaccine effectiveness (2).
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Influenza A virus infection is a global health threat to livestock and humans, causing substantial mortality and morbidity. As both pigs and humans are readily infected with influenza viruses of similar subtype, the pig is a robust and appropriate model for investigating swine and human disease. We evaluated the efficacy of the human cold-adapted 2017–2018 quadrivalent seasonal LAIV in pigs against H1N1pdm09 challenge. LAIV immunized animals showed significantly reduced viral load in nasal swabs. There was limited replication of the H1N1 component of the vaccine in the nose, a limited response to H1N1 in the lung lym...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: During consecutive influenza A/H3N2 epidemics, poor influenza vaccine effectiveness may be more pronounced among the elderly population with a high annual vaccine uptake rate. PMID: 31690467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
.
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract 2018/19 was the first season of introduction of a newly licensed adjuvanted influenza vaccine (aTIV) for adults aged 65 years and over and the sixth season in the roll-out of a childhood influenza vaccination programme with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The season saw mainly A(H1N1)pdm09 and latterly A(H3N2) circulation. End-of-season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) estimates against laboratory confirmed influenza infection in primary care were calculated using the test negative case control method adjusting for key confounders. End-of-season aVE was 44.3% (95% CI: 26.8, ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In this phase I trial of adults ≥ 65 years of age who received increased adjuvant and antigen dosages relative to the licensed aTIV, increased dosage of MF59 resulted in increased immunogenicity against all 3 components of seasonal influenza vaccine. The increase in immunogenicity was accompanied by an increase in the incidence of local reactogenicity. PMID: 31679865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract In 2018, a 15-year-old female adolescent in Australia was infected with swine influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. The virus contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes derived from 1990s-like human seasonal viruses and internal protein genes from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, highlighting the potential risk that swine influenza A virus poses to human health in Australia. PMID: 31661057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
AbstractPrior to the emergence of H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) and the latest avian-origin H3N2 CIV, there was no evidence of a circulating canine-specific influenza virus. Molecular and epidemiological evidence suggest that H3N8 CIV emerged from H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). This host-range shift of EIV from equine to canine hosts and its subsequent establishment as an enzootic CIV is unique because this host-range shift was from one mammalian host to another. To further understand this host-range shift, we conducted a comprehensive phylodynamic analysis using all the available whole-genome sequences of H3N8 CIV...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
More News: Children | H3N2 | Infectious Diseases | Influenza | Japan Health