Benzos, Opioids and Z-Drugs: Deadly Combos

With all the news media accounts and reports from governmental health organizations about the opioid epidemic, including the 70,237 drug overdose deaths in 2017, a newly emerging threat is gaining attention: use and misuse of benzodiazepines, opioid drugs and Z-drugs. Specifically, combining these three drugs can create a deadly combination that snuffs out lives. Benzodiazepine Overdose Deaths on the Rise Benzodiazepines, a class of sedative narcotic drugs including Xanax and Valium used to treat anxiety, insomnia and other disorders and classified as Schedule IV under the Controlled Substances Act by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), are increasingly misused, diverted and abused. These are powerful drugs that are highly addictive and can be fatal, especially when combined with opioids, alcohol (and Z-drugs, per recent findings). Prescriptions filled for benzos jumped 67 percent, from 8.1 million in 1996 to 13.5 million in 2013, according to a 2016 study reported in the American Journal of Public Health. Benzodiazepines are also considered responsible for a dramatic increase in overdose deaths in recent years, rising from 1,135 in 1999 to 8,791 in 2015 and 10,684 in 2016. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)  highlighted the fact that benzodiazepine overdose deaths among women spiked 830 percent from 1999 (0.54 deaths per 100,000) to 2017 (5.02 deaths per 100,000). Some 5.3 million people (of 30.6 million who said they used benzodiazepines) reported misu...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Addictions Substance Abuse Suicide Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Sante Roperto, Valeria Russo, Francesca De Falco, Alessandra Rosati, Cornel Catoi, Franco RopertoAbstractE5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the bovine Deltapapillomavirus genus, has been detected in 17 of the 19 urothelial cancers by molecular and morphological procedures. In 10 urothelial cancers, the oxygen sensitive subunit HIF-1α, which is upregulated by hypoxia, was overexpressed. Mitophagy, the selective autophagic removal of dysfunctional mitochondria, was upregulated in hypoxic neoplastic cells infected by BPVs which was...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, the compound has a protective effect against ALF in rats, and an underlying mechanism is involved in the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. PMID: 31118972 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Vigna L, Morelli F, Agnelli GM, Napolitano F, Ratto D, Occhinegro A, Di Iorio C, Savino E, Girometta C, Brandalise F, Rossi P Abstract Epidemiological data indicate that subjects affected by obesity have an increased risk of developing mood disorders. The relationship between obesity and mood disorders is bidirectional. We assessed whether a Hericium erinaceus treatment improved depression, anxiety, sleep, and binge eating disorders after 8 weeks of supplementation in subjects affected by overweight or obesity under a low calorie diet regimen. Looking for a possible clinical biomarker, we assessed the seru...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: Formal consensus was achieved for the first time on a core list of knowledge items on how exercises and physical activities might stimulate anticancer immunity. This core list might be considered at the time of developing training/educational interventions and/or continuing education for primary healthcare providers and CAM practitioners. Future studies are still needed to investigate if such consensual lists might improve congruence in cancer care continuum and improve survival rates and wellbeing of cancer patients and survivors. PMID: 31118968 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Oei SL, Thronicke A, Schad F Abstract In early tumor development, cancer cells develop a plethora of strategies to escape surveillance from the adaptive and innate immune system. Cancer immunotherapies, in particular immune checkpoint inhibitors, are becoming a highly promising cancer therapeutic approach that has remarkable increased progress in combating various cancer types. Unfortunately, their mechanisms of action induce some complications, such as inflammatory reactions and immune-related adverse events. In the management of side effects during anticancer therapy, complementary and integrative therap...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Z, Zhang J, Zhong Z, Yao Z, Qu S, Huang Y Abstract Electroacupuncture (EA) is considered a complementary therapy for depression. Trials also found that EA has additive benefits when combined with medication compared with medication alone. It is revealed that EA restores altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity in depressed brain. But precise molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of EA and EA combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on depressed (CUMS) rats. Then a new proteomics approach, isobaric tag for relative and absolute ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Ko JH, Kim SN Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the main regulators of diverse physiological processes. Recently, miRNAs have emerged as significant players related to the effect of acupuncture although the biological mechanisms connecting the function of these miRNAs with the effect of acupuncture are not well understood. In animal models of various diseases, such as neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, myopathy, and pain, a number of miRNAs were altered after administration of electroacupuncture or manual acupuncture. Nonetheless, there are a limited number of studies published so far. This paper ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
In this study, we report that the Protium javanicum methanol extract (Pj-ME) plays an important role in suppressing nitric oxide (NO) levels without cytotoxicity. The effect of Pj-ME in LPS-induced expression leads to reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, specifically inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Pj-ME significantly inhibited LPS-induced protein expression of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in a time-dependent manner. Syk and Src were identified as putative signaling molecules of Pj-ME-mediated anti-inflammatory activ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Biosensors and BioelectronicsAuthor(s): Shao Su, Qian Sun, Ling Wan, Xiaodan Gu, Dan Zhu, Yi Zhou, Jie Chao, Lianhui WangAbstractUltrasensitive detection of cancer biomarkers has shown great promise for precision medicine. Here, a triple signal amplification strategy was developed for analysis of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by using MoS2-based nanocomposites. Gold nanoparticles-decorated molybdenum disulfide nanocomposite (MoS2-AuNPs) was used to construct the modified electrode and nanoprobe, which could efficiently amplify electrochemical signal due to its large su...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Ester Saus, Susana Iraola-Guzmán, Jesse R. Willis, Anna Brunet-Vega, Toni GabaldónAbstractThe gastrointestinal tract harbors most of the microbiota associated with humans. In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in assessing the relationships between the gut microbiota and several gut alterations, including colorectal cancer. Changes in the gut microbiota in patients suffering colorectal cancer suggest a possible role of host-microbe interactions in the origin and development of this malignancy and, at th...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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