New Insights into Animal-Borne Disease Outbreaks

In the wake of the recent Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, a reevaluation of the ways plague spreads through prairie dog colonies in the western United States has yielded insights that could help explain outbreaks of plague, Ebola, and other diseases that can be transmitted by animals to humans. These include West Nile Virus disease and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). The study, led by Dan Salkeld and Mike Antolin of Colorado State University and described in the journal BioScience, suggests that even deadly diseases may persist unnoticed in a population for years as smoldering infections, rather than jump from another species immediately before an outbreak. Moreover, the investigations commonly launched after a human outbreak can yield misleading information about which host species were actually responsible. For instance, it seems that grasshopper mice and coyotes, which scavenge plague-killed black-tailed prairie dogs, may speed transmission of the plague-causing bacterium by acquiring and spreading the flea vectors. Thus, fleas can transmit plague faster than was once thought. According to Salkeld and colleagues, the disease can persist in wider prairie dog populations through repeated dispersal and reinvasion despite local outbreaks that can kill 95%-100% of the members of affected colonies. The authors state that this "slow, smoldering, cryptic disease transmission in animal populations prior to outbreaks in humans is... a hypothetical explanation f...
Source: BioScience Press Releases - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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Mar 27 2019 6:00PM toMar 27 2019 7:00PMAlexandriaEVENT: Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching Applicant Webinars The Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching (PAEMST) are the highest honors bestowed by the United States government for K-12 science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and/or computer science teaching, with up to 108 teachers awarded each year. Awardees receive $10,000 from NSF, attend an awards ceremony in Washington, ... More at https://www.nsf.gov/events/event_summ.jsp?cntn_id=298106&WT.mc_id=USNSF_13&WT.mc_ev=click This is an NSF Events item.
Source: NSF Events - Category: Science Source Type: events
ABSTRACT Objectives: To ascertain the opinions of North American genitourinary (GU) experts regarding inclusion of technologies such as prostate - specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and C – 11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) into routine practice. Materials and Methods: A survey was distributed to North American GU experts. Questions pertained to the role of PSMA and C – 11 PET in PCa management. Participants were categorized as “ supporters ” or “ opponents ” of incorporation of novel imaging techniques. Opinions were correlated with practice patterns. Results: Response rate wa...
Source: International Braz J Urol - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): Michael Reid, Eric Goosby, Sebastian Kevany
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
ConclusionA significant longitudinal effect of the accumulation of adiposity on low-grade inflammation was observed. The change in adiposity from consecutive study waves was shown to have a stronger effect on final hsCRP concentrations than both previous adiposity and hsCRP levels.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Journal of Emergency NursingAuthor(s): Heather L. Brown, Thomas B. Brown
Source: Journal of Emergency Nursing - Category: Nursing Source Type: research
China's agriculture ministry said in a document released on Friday it is studying a temporary subsidy policy for breeding farms and large-scale farms designed at stabilizing hog production capacity in the wake of a major disease epidemic.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
ConclusionsHigh quality CPGs are available for implementation of ASPs in acute care hospitals.
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Breu et  al1 identified hypoxic hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, hepatobiliary obstruction, and viral hepatitis as the common causes of severe acute liver injury (ALI). In their study and in other recent studies from the United States and Europe, severe ALI has been attributed to acute viral hepatitis in 10% to 15% cases, but acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been reported in only 4 of 726 (0.6%) episodes.1–3 This is surprising given the high HEV seroprevalence in Central Europe and the United States,4,5 an increasing number of hospitalizations for confirmed HEV infections,6 and med ian peak ...
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Across China, the virus that could spark the next pandemic is already circulating. It’s a bird flu called H7N9, and true to its name, it mostly infects poultry. Lately, however, it’s started jumping from chickens to humans more readily–bad news, because the virus is a killer. During a recent spike, 88% of people infected got pneumonia, three-quarters ended up in intensive care with severe respiratory problems, and 41% died. What H7N9 can’t do–yet–is spread easily from person to person, but experts know that could change. The longer the virus spends in humans, the better the chance that i...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized CDC Disease ebola Gates Foundation MERS outbreak pandemic Zika Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS The urge to do something to help in an international medical crisis is understandable and admirable, but the adverse impacts reported by participants here – at every stage of deployment, suggest that preparedness for these missions needs improvement and at the very least, high risk missions should be limited to more seasoned and well trained (for conditions in the field) personnel. While volunteering for a medical mission during a health crisis can be very rewarding, both professionally and personally, it can also be very disruptive and impactful. All volunteers for high risk missions must be made fully a...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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