Networks and the epidemiology of infectious disease.
Networks and the epidemiology of infectious disease. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2011;2011:284909 Authors: Danon L, Ford AP, House T, Jewell CP, Keeling MJ, Roberts GO, Ross JV, Vernon MC Abstract The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epid...
Postoperative opioid prescriptions contribute significantly to prolonged opioid misuse and abuse. Using a national hernia registry, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a data-driven educational intervention on surgeon prescribing behavior.
The obesity epidemic in the United States has led to increasing proportion of obese liver transplant (LT) recipients. Previous studies have not found significant differences in graft survival (GS) and patient survival (PS) between obese and non-obese recipients. However, obesity is a complex, socioeconomic disease that is intrinsically tied with race. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze the effects of race on liver transplant outcomes in obese recipients.
SLEEP deprivation has become a global epidemic, with up to 30 percent of people in developed countries suffering from chronic insomnia. While many resort to medication to fix their sleep woes, certain DIY techniques have also proven successful aids in the past. One method put forward by a professor, could induce sleep in less time than it takes to eat a bowl of cereal.
Rose Health's CEO and CMO on the current burnout epidemic and how tech could help,
The following is a guest article by James Garvert, Senior Vice President and General Manager of Communications Solutions at Neustar. Faced with a ballooning epidemic of illegal robocalls and phone scams — in 2020, U.S. consumers received nearly 46 billion robocalls and lost $3.3 billion to phone fraud — legislators and the Federal Communications Commission […]
Australian lawmakers took to Twitter to school American critics of the country’s COVID-19 public health measures, pointing to how well they have worked to prevent deaths in comparison to policies in the U.S., where the death toll has been one of the worst in the world. Since the pandemic began, Australia has enforced strict measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including some of the world’s longest lockdowns. State and territory-wide restrictions can only be lifted once more than 80% of the local population aged 16 and older is fully inoculated against the virus. In the U.S., by comparison, many states l...
Conclusions Patients with undetermined risk for HIV constituted a large proportion of clinic visits and had a large volume of sexual health needs but rarely received PrEP when indicated. To end the HIV epidemic in the United States, prevention efforts must include people who fall outside traditional risk categories.
Conclusions Forty-three percent of patients were retested within approximately 3 months of their initial positive CT/GC diagnosis, exceeding previously published rates. Nonetheless, in light of the growing STI epidemic, health care systems should prioritize retesting across high-volume testing specialties, rethink retesting models, and facilitate referrals to ensure that patients receive guideline-recommended, comprehensive STI care.
Conclusions We demonstrated that NG was experiencing a growth phase, confirming theoretical predictions of geographic dispersion during a growth phase. During this phase, NG occupied similar geographic spaces as CT. Knowledge of different ecological niches could lead to better targeting of resources for subpopulations vulnerable to STIs.
This study investigates the association between religious faith and intentions to become vaccinated against COVID-19 in Israel and Japan. Most of Israel ’s population is monotheistic, whereas most Japanese are unaffiliated with any religion. Therefore, our findings might be applicable to various countries that differ in their religions and levels of religiosity. We conducted almost identical large-scale surveys four times in Israel and five times in Japan from March to June 2020 to obtain panel data. We found that intentions of getting vaccinated depend on people’s level of religiosity in a non-linear way. Thos...