Muscle stem cells can drive cancer that arises in Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Scientists from Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have demonstrated that muscle stem cells may give rise to rhabdomyosarcoma that occurs during DMD--and identified two genes linked to the tumor's growth. The research, performed using a mouse model of severe DMD, helps scientists better understand how rhabdomyosarcoma develops in DMD--and indicates that ongoing efforts to develop treatments that stimulate muscle stem cells should consider potential cancer risk. The study was published in Cell Reports on January 15, 2019.
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Conclusions: Due to the complexity of the behavior and biology of cells, scientists' primary focus should be on detection and elimination of sources of inflammation. Antiparasitic medications, and also antiviral, antibiotic, and antifungal medications should be thought of as underrecognized, underappreciated, and forgotten medications that can be part of cancer therapy. The information offered in this review suggests scientists should think of cancer not only as a metabolic disease but also as a metabolic parasite and should consider using antiparasitic medications under a new understanding of the role of inflammation, inf...
Conclusions: While case reports cannot be considered as proof of efficacy, these cases added to others of patients treated with the same method would suggest that this is a viable option for those patients whose disease cannot be treated successfully with other modalities. PMID: 31202206 [PubMed - in process]
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Michael Timaner, Kelvin Tsai, Yuval ShakedAbstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from the mesoderm that give rise to several mesenchymal lineages, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and myocytes. Their potent ability to home to tumors coupled with their differentiation potential and immunosuppressive function positions MSCs as key regulators of tumor fate. Here we review the existing knowledge on the involvement of MSCs in multiple tumor-promoting processes, including angiogenesis, epit...
Publication date: August 2019Source: Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 61Author(s): Ryan Wendt, Yubo Gao, Benjamin J. MillerAbstractBackgroundThere is an undefined relationship between access to regional referral centers and whether the eventual oncologic outcomes are influenced by distance, travel time, or residence in a rural community.MethodsWe used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program Database to capture all cases of high-grade osteosarcoma from 1990 to 2014 in Iowa, Utah, and New Mexico. Using univariate, Kaplan Meier survival analysis, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling we analyzed ...
ConclusionsCNS-RF is a relevant measure of prognosis in patients who have already achieved a period of remission. Providing an updated estimation of prognosis in the years following diagnosis may improve the survivors’ quality of life and access to credit or insurance.
We report that even before tumor formation, MuSCs exhibit increased self-renewal and an expression signature associated with RMSs. These cells can form tumorspheres in vitro and give rise to RMSs in vivo. Finally, we show that the inflammatory genes Ccl11 and Rgs5 are involved in RMS growth. Together, our results show that DMD severity drives MuSC-mediated RMS development.Graphical Abstract
People with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can develop an otherwise-rare muscle cancer, called rhabdomyosarcoma, due to the muscle cells' continuous work to rebuild the damaged tissue. However, little is known about how the cancer arises, hindering development of a treatment or test that could predict cancer risk.
Dystrophin inactivation, responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), is recently implicated as an anti-tumor suppressor factor in cancers with myogenic characteristics. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a mesodermal cancer, shows myogenic features and occurs at a higher frequency in mdx mouse, a DMD model mouse. In humans, as the clinical management of DMD advances to increase the life expectancy of patients, a subsequent issue is anticipated to be that of addressing other complications such as RMS.