Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 59: From SARS to MERS, Thrusting Coronaviruses into the Spotlight

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 59: From SARS to MERS, Thrusting Coronaviruses into the Spotlight Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11010059 Authors: Zhiqi Song Yanfeng Xu Linlin Bao Ling Zhang Pin Yu Yajin Qu Hua Zhu Wenjie Zhao Yunlin Han Chuan Qin Coronaviruses (CoVs) have formerly been regarded as relatively harmless respiratory pathogens to humans. However, two outbreaks of severe respiratory tract infection, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), as a result of zoonotic CoVs crossing the species barrier, caused high pathogenicity and mortality rates in human populations. This brought CoVs global attention and highlighted the importance of controlling infectious pathogens at international borders. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, as well as provides details on the pivotal structure and function of the spike proteins (S proteins) on the surface of each of these viruses. For building up more suitable animal models, we compare the current animal models recapitulating pathogenesis and summarize the potential role of host receptors contributing to diverse host affinity in various species. We outline the research still needed to fully elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of these viruses, to construct reproducible animal models, and ultimately develop countermeasures to c...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): M. Alejandra Tortorici, David VeeslerAbstractCoronaviruses (CoVs) have caused outbreaks of deadly pneumonia in humans since the beginning of the 21st century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and was responsible for an epidemic that spread to five continents with a fatality rate of 10% before being contained in 2003 (with additional cases reported in 2004). The Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 and has caused recurrent outbreaks in humans w...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): M. Alejandra Tortorici, David VeeslerAbstractCoronaviruses (CoVs) have caused outbreaks of deadly pneumonia in humans since the beginning of the 21st century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and was responsible for an epidemic that spread to five continents with a fatality rate of 10% before being contained in 2003 (with additional cases reported in 2004). The Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 and has caused recurrent outbre...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - Category: Virology Source Type: research
ng Zhou During the past two decades, three zoonotic coronaviruses have been identified as the cause of large-scale disease outbreaks–Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome (SADS). SARS and MERS emerged in 2003 and 2012, respectively, and caused a worldwide pandemic that claimed thousands of human lives, while SADS struck the swine industry in 2017. They have common characteristics, such as they are all highly pathogenic to humans or livestock, their agents originated from bats, and two of them originated in China. Thus, it is highly...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E AndersonIn the last two decades, several high impact zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to bat-borne viruses. These include SARS coronavirus, Hendra virus and Nipah virus. In addition, it has been suspected that ebolaviruses and MERS coronavirus are also linked to bats. It is being increasingly accepted that bats are potential reservoirs of a large number of known and unknown viruses, many of which could spillover into animal and human populations. However, our knowledge into basic bat biology and immuno...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Young Go The Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), first identified in Saudi Arabia, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe acute respiratory illness in humans with a high fatality rate. Since its emergence, MERS-CoV continues to spread to countries outside of the Arabian Peninsula and gives rise to sporadic human infections following the entry of infected individuals to other countries, which can precipitate outbreaks similar to the one that occurred in South Korea in 2015. Current therapeutics against MERS-CoV infection have primarily been adapted from previous drugs used for the trea...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Renqiang Liu, Jinliang Wang, Yu Shao, Xijun Wang, Huilei Zhang, Lei Shuai, Jinying Ge, Zhiyuan Wen, Zhigao Bu Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a highly threatening zoonotic pathogen since its outbreak in 2012. Similar to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV belongs to the coronavirus family and can induce severe respiratory symptoms in humans, with an average case fatality rate of 35% according to the World Health Organization. Spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV is immunogenic and can induce neutralizing antibodies, thus is a...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a highly threatening zoonotic pathogen since its outbreak in 2012. Similar to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV belongs to the coronavirus family and can induce severe respiratory symptoms in humans, with an average case fatality rate of 35% according to the World Health Organization. Spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV is immunogenic and can induce neutralizing antibodies, thus is a potential major target for vaccine development. Here we constructed a chimeric virus based on the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the G gene was replaced by MERS-CoV S gen...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Authors: de Wilde AH, Snijder EJ, Kikkert M, van Hemert MJ Abstract Coronaviruses are pathogens with a serious impact on human and animal health. They mostly cause enteric or respiratory disease, which can be severe and life threatening, e.g., in the case of the zoonotic coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in humans. Despite the economic and societal impact of such coronavirus infections, and the likelihood of future outbreaks of additional pathogenic coronaviruses, our options to prevent or treat coronavirus infections remain very limited. This...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research
Authors: Azhar EI, Lanini S, Ippolito G, Zumla A Abstract Two new zoonotic coronaviruses causing disease in humans (Zumla et al. 2015a; Hui and Zumla 2015; Peiris et al. 2003; Yu et al. 2014) have been the focus of international attention for the past 14 years due to their epidemic potential; (1) The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Peiris et al. 2003) first discovered in China in 2001 caused a major global epidemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). (2) The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a new corona virus isolated for the first time in a pati...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR. Between 2010 and 2013, 1965 bats were therefore sampled at interfaces wi...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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