Primary Care for Persons Who Inject Drugs.

Primary Care for Persons Who Inject Drugs. Am Fam Physician. 2019 Jan 15;99(2):109-116 Authors: Visconti AJ, Sell J, Greenblatt AD Abstract More than 750,000 persons in the United States inject opioids, methamphetamine, cocaine, or ketamine, and that number is increasing because of the current opioid epidemic. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at higher risk of infectious and noninfectious skin, pulmonary, cardiac, neurologic, and other causes of morbidity and mortality. Nonjudgmental inquiries about current drug use can uncover information about readiness for addiction treatment and identify modifiable risk factors for complications of injection drug use. All PWID should be screened for human immunodeficiency virus infection, latent tuberculosis, and hepatitis B and C, and receive vaccinations for hepatitis A and B, tetanus, and pneumonia if indicated. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection should also be offered. Naloxone should be prescribed to those at risk of opioid overdose. Skin and soft tissue infections are the most common medical complication in PWID and the top reason for hospitalization in these patients. Signs of systemic infection require hospitalization, blood cultures, and a comprehensive history and physical examination to determine the source of infection. PWID have a higher incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and are at risk of other pulmonary complications, including opioid-associated pulmonary ede...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

Related Links:

This study not only determined the primary reason for the atypical IBD epidemic, but also remind us of the urgency for developing new vaccines against novel variant IBDV.
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Xian-Wei Wang, Mi Wang, Jing Zhan, Qian-Yu Liu, Lin-lin Fang, Chen-yao Zhao, Ping Jiang, Yu-Feng Li, Juan BaiAbstractSince late 2010, highly virulent PEDV G2-genotype strains have emerged globally extracting heavy losses on the pork industries of numerous countries. We investigated the characteristics of a field strain of PEDV (PEDV strain SH) isolated from a piglet with severe diarrhea on a farm in Shanghai China. Whole genome sequencing and analysis revealed that the SH strain belonged to subtype G2a and has a unique 12-aa deleti...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Yosuke Sasaki, Aina Furutani, Tomohiro Furuichi, Yuiko Hayakawa, Sayoko Ishizeki, Rika Kano, Fumiko Koike, Mali Miyashita, Yoshihiro Mizukami, Yugo Watanabe, Satoshi Otake, on behalf of P-JETAbstractIt is well known that infectious diseases such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) decrease herd productivity and lead to economic loss. It is believed that biosecurity practices are effective for the prevention and control of such infectious diseases. Therefore, the objecti...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Pooja Gopal, Thomas DickAbstractDrug induced degradation of a target protein is a novel concept in drug discovery. Traditionally drugs modulate activity, as opposed to abundance, of their targets. Degradation inducing ligands act catalytically. Thus, one advantage of target degradation over the classical on-target mechanism is that lower drug concentration may be sufficient to cause the desired cellular effects. The first promoters of target degradation were discovered unintentionally: it turned out that some d...
Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Neelagandan Kamariah, Priya Ragunathan, Joon Shin, Wuan-Geok Saw, Chui-Fann Wong, Thomas Dick, Gerhard GrüberAbstractThe causative agent of Tuberculosis (TB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounters unfavourable environmental conditions in the lungs, including nutrient limitation, low oxygen tensions and/or low/high pH values. These harsh conditions in the host triggers Mtb to enter a dormant state in which the pathogen does not replicate and uses host-derived fatty acids instead of carbohydrates as an ...
Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Ludovica Mascolo, Dirk BaldAbstractThe branched respiratory chain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has attracted attention as a highly promising target for next-generation antibacterials. This system includes two terminal oxidases of which the exclusively bacterial cytochrome bd represents the less energy-efficient one. Albeit dispensable for growth under standard laboratory conditions, cytochrome bd is important during environmental stress. In this review, we discuss the role of cytochrome bd during infection of ...
Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we designed a simple strategy to achieve the co-delivery of a DNA vaccine and hydrophobic immune adjuvant (R848) and to enhance the adjuvanticity of R848 via the synergistic effect of GO and R848. Thiolated low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (TPEI1.8) was crosslinked with 4-aminothiophenol-modified GO (TGO) via the formation of disulfide bonds. Thus, TGO with its assembled TPEI1.8 could not only load R848 but also electrostatically interact with the DNA vaccine. Owing to the reducibility of the disulfide bond in the cellular environment, the DNA vaccine could be readily released. This system can significa...
Source: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 16 November 2019Source: New Scientist, Volume 244, Issue 3256Author(s): Sam WongA vaccine based on a weakened version of the dengue virus was 80 per cent effective at preventing infections after one year in a trial of 20,000 children
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: Preventive Medicine, Volume 129Author(s): Jessica H. Beard, Sara F. Jacoby, Richard James, Beidi Dong, Mark J. Seamon, Zoë Maher, Amy J. Goldberg, Christopher N. MorrisonAbstractIdentifying the people and places affected by mass shootings depends on how “mass shooting” is defined. From the perspective of urban neighborhoods, it is likely the number of people injured within a proximate time and space, which determines the event's impact on perceptions of safety and social cohesion. We aimed to describe the incidence of “neighborhood” mass shootings in one U...
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in polysubstance detection associated with drug-related overdose deaths in Connecticut. METHODS: We used 2012-2018 data provided by Connecticut's Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) on accidental overdose death...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
More News: Addiction | Asthma | Brain | Cardiology | Endocarditis | Epidemics | Epidemiology | Heart | Heart Valve Disease | Heart Valves | Hepatitis | Hepatitis A | Hepatitis B | Hepatitis Vaccine | Methamphetamine | Neurology | Osteomyelitis | Overdose | Pneomococcal Vaccine | Pneumonia | Primary Care | Skin | Tetanus | Tetanus Vaccine | Tuberculosis | USA Health | Vaccines