RANKL-independent modulation of osteoclastogenesis

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Journal of Oral BiosciencesAuthor(s): Wei Feng, Jie Guo, Minqi LiAbstractOsteoclasts are functional cells required for bone resorption. They are derived from hematopoietic precursors and undergo a series of differentiation and fusion steps in response to various humoral factors. Depending on the importance in osteoclastogenesis, the pathways for the differentiation of hematopoietic precursors to mature osteoclasts can be divided into two categories: canonical and the non-canonical. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation is considered as an important canonical pathway. Non-canonical pathways of osteoclastogenesis mainly involve several humoral factors that can substitute for RANKL to induce osteoclast formation. Among these factors, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, “homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibiting inducible expression, and competing with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry mediator, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes” (LIGHT), a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), and B cell-activating factor (BAFF) belong to the TNF superfamily. Other RANKL substitutes are primarily cytokines and growth factors including transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), IL-6, IL-11, nerve growth factor (NGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-II. In this review, we summarize the involvement of these factors i...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

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Authors: Kim J, Lee K, Lee W Abstract Eosinophilic esophagitis is a rare disease in Asian countries, but its incidence is growing rapidly in Western countries. The main pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis is esophageal epithelial barrier dysfunction; disruption of the esophageal epithelial barrier easily induces antigen sensitization to foods and aeroallergens, which leads to subsequent esophageal inflammation as a result of eosinophil recruitment. Here we report a case of an 11-year-old Korean boy who suffered from fever, odynophagia, dysphagia, and chest pain. His upper endoscopic findings showed longitud...
Source: Clinical Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Clin Endosc Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: The Lancet NeurologyAuthor(s): Josep Dalmau, Thais Armangué, Jesús Planagumà, Marija Radosevic, Francesco Mannara, Frank Leypoldt, Christian Geis, Eric Lancaster, Maarten J Titulaer, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc GrausSummaryThe identification of anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis about 12 years ago made it possible to recognise that some patients with rapidly progressive psychiatric symptoms or cognitive impairment, seizures, abnormal movements, or coma of unknown cause, had an autoimmune disease. In this disease, autoantibodies serve as a diag...
Source: The Lancet Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although ZIKV was not confirmed to cause the congenital malformations, this study demonstrated that the clinical and epidemiological findings associated with a STORCH exclusion strengthened the CZS diagnosis. The suspected cases in MT occurred simultaneously with the first CZS cases reported in Brazil, suggesting ZIKV circulation in the study region during the same period.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although ZIKV was not confirmed to cause the congenital malformations, this study demonstrated that the clinical and epidemiological findings associated with a STORCH exclusion strengthened the CZS diagnosis. The suspected cases in MT occurred simultaneously with the first CZS cases reported in Brazil, suggesting ZIKV circulation in the study region during the same period.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionHerpetic keratouveitis has characteristic features on AS-OCT images. This study demonstrates that herpetic keratitis also has characteristic AS-OCT features, including sub-epithelial infiltration and specific stromal hyper-reflective patterns. These features are not unique to herpetic keratitis, but AS-OCT imaging may provide useful supplementary information for diagnosing and monitoring herpetic keratitis.
Source: International Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Abstract Erythema multiforme is an immune-mediated reaction that involves the skin and sometimes the mucosa. Classically described as target-like, the erythema multiforme lesions can be isolated, recurrent, or persistent. Most commonly, the lesions of erythema multiforme present symmetrically on the extremities (especially on extensor surfaces) and spread centripetally. Infections, especially herpes simplex virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and medications constitute most of the causes of erythema multiforme; immunizations and autoimmune diseases have also been linked to erythema multiforme. Erythema multiforme can...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
In this study, we used herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), the causative agent of corneal inflammatory herpetic disease, as a model pathogen to determine: (i) Whether and how the virulence of a virus affects the type and the activation level of the inflammasomes; and (ii) How triggering specific inflammasomes translates into protective or damaging inflammatory response. We showed that, in contrast to the less-virulent HSV-1 strains (RE, F, KOS and KOS63), corneal infection of B6 mice with the virulent HSV-1 strains (McKrae, 17 or KOS79): (i) Induced simultaneous high expression levels of the NLRP3, NLRP12 and IFI16 inflam...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Due to the increased resistance of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and parasites) to antimicrobial therapies, alternative treatments, especially using plant sources and their bioactive constituents, appear to be more fruitful. PMID: 31309894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Drug Discovery Technologies - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Discov Technol Source Type: research
Publication date: 2019Source: IDCases, Volume 18Author(s): Archana Vasudevan, Christian Rojas-Moreno, Tushar TarunAbstractA 54 year old female presented to the ophthalmology clinic with pain and decreased vision in her left eye. No past medical history other than primary varicella zoster infection, in her childhood. The eye exam revealed a macular region with scattered areas of retinal opacity along with patches of necrosis on the periphery. She was started on valganciclovir and referred to the infectious disease clinic. Cell Count, blood chemistry and HIV were negative. Serum was sent for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) f...
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated a gene therapy approach targeting HCC using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSVtk/GCV) suicide gene system in HCC cell lines and in an in vivo human HCC xenograft mouse model. GP73-modified liposomes targeted gene delivery to the tumor tissue, and the survivin promoter drove HSVtk expression in the HCC cells. Our results showed that the survivin promoter was specifically activated in tumor cells and HSVtk was expressed selectively in tumor cells. Combined with GCV treatment, HSVtk expression resulted in suppression of HCC cell proliferation via enhancing apoptosis. Moreove...
Source: Experimental Cell Research - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Exp Cell Res Source Type: research
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