Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or from Pakistan - United States, 2016-2018.

Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or from Pakistan - United States, 2016-2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Jan 11;68(1):11-13 Authors: Chatham-Stephens K, Medalla F, Hughes M, Appiah GD, Aubert RD, Caidi H, Angelo KM, Walker AT, Hatley N, Masani S, Nash J, Belko J, Ryan ET, Mintz E, Friedman CR Abstract In February 2018, a typhoid fever outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, was reported in Pakistan. During November 2016-September 2017, 339 cases of this extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi strain were reported in Pakistan, mostly in Karachi and Hyderabad; one travel-associated case was also reported from the United Kingdom (1). More cases have been detected in Karachi and Hyderabad as surveillance efforts have been strengthened, with recent reports increasing the number of cases to 5,372 (2). In the United States, in response to the reports from Pakistan, enhanced surveillance identified 29 patients with typhoid fever who had traveled to or from Pakistan during 2016-2018, including five with XDR Typhi. Travelers to areas with endemic disease, such as South Asia, should be vaccinated against typhoid fever before traveling and follow safe food and water practices. Clinicians should be aware that most typhoid fever infections in the United States ar...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study highlights the presence of potential genes as molecular targets to overcome the future endemic outbreaks in India. PMID: 31089918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
Conclusions: The study provided evidence for the remarkable prevention potential of whole genome sequencing used as a routine tool in systems that integrate human, food and animal surveillance. PMID: 29616614 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
by Zoe A. Dyson, Duy Pham Thanh, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Carl Jeffries Mason, Apichai Srijan, Maia A. Rabaa, Phat Voong Vinh, Tuyen Ha Thanh, Guy E. Thwaites, Stephen Baker, Kathryn E. Holt Vaccines againstSalmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, are commonly used by travellers, however, there are few examples of national immunization programs in endemic areas. There is therefore a paucity of data on the impact of typhoid immunization programs on localised populations ofS. Typhi. Here we have used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise 44 historical bacterial isolates collected before and after a nation...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2017 Source:Food Control, Volume 73, Part B Author(s): Ewen C.D. Todd Gulf States in the Middle East have had to change rapidly from subsidence herding, farming and fishing communities to modern states through the exploitation of revenue-generating petroleum products. Fresh water is an even more precious commodity than oil today as this is seen as a rapidly diminishing resource through over use of aquifers with scarce and unpredictable rainfall not replenishing the needs of these countries which increasing rely on reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination of seawater but at a cost in terms of energy. Recyc...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The outbreak occurred due to S. Typhi contaminating the water supply. Sanitation and immunization are the two most important components to be stressed to prevent such outbreaks. PMID: 28256469 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research
Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Sometimes concurrent infections with multiple infectious agents may occur in one patient, which make the diagnosis and management a challenging task. The authors here present a case of co-infection of typhoid fever with dengue fever in a ten-year-old child and discuss the pertinent issues. The authors emphasize that the risk factors predicting the presence of such co-infections, if developed, will be immensely useful in areas where dengue outbreak occurs in the background of high transmission of endemic infections.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, chronic carriers in Kelantan, Malaysia were first identified using the culture and polymerase chain reaction method. Then, a novel serological tool, designated Typhidot-C, was evaluated in retrospect using the detected individuals as control positives. Chronic carriage positive by the culture and polymerase chain reaction method was recorded at 3.6% (4 out of 110) among individuals who previously had acute typhoid fever and a 9.4% (10 out of 106) carriage rate was observed among food handlers screened during outbreaks. The Typhidot-C assay was able to detect all these positive carriers showing its potential ...
Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tags: E-articles Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results indicated that TUBEX-TF and OnSite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo rapid tests were useful tools for the rapid diagnosis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection during typhoid outbreaks in Zimbabwe. The tests performed very well in laboratory evaluations of blood culture-confirmed typhoid cases in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Source: BMC Research Notes - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Azithromycin | Bactrim | Endemics | Outbreaks | Pakistan Health | Salmonella | Sulfamethoxazole | Trimethoprim | Typhoid | Typhoid Vaccine | UK Health | USA Health | Vaccines | Zithromax