Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Hepatitis A Viruses Circulating in Tokyo, 2016-2017.

[Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Hepatitis A Viruses Circulating in Tokyo, 2016-2017]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2018;59(6):257-264 Authors: Oda M, Somura Y, Nagano M, Kimoto K, Okutsu Y, Shinkai T, Sadamasu K Abstract Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a common infectious agent that causes acute hepatitis worldwide. Since the incubation period of HAV infection is about one month, it is difficult to identify the source of infection based only on medical interviews. Molecular epidemiological analysis of HAV isolated from patients can help to reveal the infection route and to identify diffuse outbreaks caused by common food vehicles. In the present study, samples were collected from 108 cases notified to the active epidemiological investigation system in Tokyo between 2016 and 2017. Samples found to be HAV-positive by semi-nested RT-PCR were subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis; the results were analyzed together with the epidemiological data. HAV was detected in 99 out of 108 cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 99 HAV strains were divided into 91 of genotype IA, two of IB, and six of IIIA. The 91 HAV strains typed as IA were further divided into four main line-ages, IA-1, IA-2, IA-3, and IA-4, each with a unique epidemiological background. Our nucleotide sequence database of HAV and epidemiological background data will be helpful to investigate sources of infection and the epidemiology of hepatitis A cases in the future. PMID: 3062...
Source: Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan - Category: Food Science Tags: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Related Links:

lgaço Lia L. Lewis-Ximenez Hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported worldwide and associated primarily with sexual transmission through oral-anal sex. Here, we provide the molecular and evolutionary description of a European strain, linked to HAV outbreaks among MSM, detected in a Brazilian homosexual couple. Bayesian analysis provided evidence that the viral isolates were introduced in Brazil from Spain between the end of 2016 and the beginning of 2017.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research
We report here on the first spillover outbreak of the MSM-associated HAV genotype RIVM-HAV16-090 in the German general population in November 2017 –February 2018. In total, twelve cases could be attributed to the outbreak with the index case and a coworker in a butchers shop being the most probable source of the outbreak. The identical HAV genotype was detected in two environmental samples in the premises of the butchers shop and in nine cas es. Outbreak control measures included detailed contact tracing and stool examinations, several environmental investigations, thorough cleaning, and disinfection of the premises ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Between January and May in 2018, 17 male cases of hepatitis A were reported in Yokohama, Japan. Of these, 14 identified as men who have sex with men. The viral sequence in this outbreak was same as that of the recent European and Taiwanese outbreaks strain.
Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Category: Sexual Medicine Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
The Ohio Department of Health says reports that wrongly imply a newly declared outbreak of hepatitis A are circulating around the state, apparently prompted by a recent case involving a restaurant worker
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
Abstract Hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination is recommended routinely for children at age 12-23 months, for persons who are at increased risk for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and for any person wishing to obtain immunity. Persons at increased risk for HAV infection include international travelers to areas with high or intermediate hepatitis A endemicity, men who have sex with men, users of injection and noninjection drugs, persons with chronic liver disease, person with clotting factor disorders, persons who work with HAV-infected primates or with HAV in a research laboratory setting, and persons who anticipate c...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract In August 2015 two community outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) occurred in sub-urban communities in Northern England. Each was managed by an independent outbreak control team. In outbreak one, mass vaccination was deployed targeting a residential area and two schools, while in outbreak two, vaccination was reserved for household-type contacts of cases. The highest vaccination uptake was achieved in the school settings (82% and 95%). These case studies illustrate the range of approaches that can be used and the factors that influence decision-making in response to a hepatitis A community outbreak. Both ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
ConclusionsConsiderable vaccination delay should be addressed within the vaccine hesitancy spectrum. Delays may induce susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks; tailored programmes to improve timeliness are required. PMID: 30755293 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
AbstractBerries have repeatedly been associated with outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. The fruits are usually minimally processed in the food industry due to their delicate nature. While washing treatments partially remove enteric viruses, the commonly used chemical additives produce toxic by-products. A valid alternative to preserve the food safety of these products could be the use of essential oils (EOs). EOs exert antimicrobial activity and do not interfere with the nutritional characteristics of food products. We investigated the efficacy of four essential oils, lemon (Citrus limon), sweet orange (Citrus...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar given by Darcy A. Wooten, MD, on July 19, 2018. PMID: 30641485 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Topics in antiviral medicine - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research
Mycobacterium chimaera was identified as a species within the Mycobacterium avium complex in 2004. Until recently, it was predominantly seen in immunocompromised patients. In 2015, an outbreak of disseminated M. chimaera disease was described in European patients after undergoing open-heart surgery in which contaminated heater-cooler water units were used. Using whole genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, investigators found a highly clonal outbreak from the German manufacturing site of the heater-cooler water units. This outbreak has now proven to be world-wide. Patients present with fever, fatigue, and weight los...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
More News: Databases & Libraries | Epidemiology | Food Science | Hepatitis | Hepatitis A | Japan Health | Outbreaks | Study