Bacterial sex in dental plaque.
Bacterial sex in dental plaque. J Oral Microbiol. 2013;5 Authors: Olsen I, Tribble GD, Fiehn NE, Wang BY Abstract Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity. PMID: 23741559 [PubMed]
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Elma L. Leite, Wydemberg J. Araújo, Tatiana R. Vieira, Karoline S. Zenato, Priscylla C. Vasconcelos, Samuel Cibulski, Patricia E.N. Givisiez, Marisa R.I. Cardoso, Celso J.B. Oliveira
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): E.L. Looman, P. van Tienen, D.Y.K. Ng, S. Baig, A. Fait, S. Overballe-Petersen, P.S. Andersen, M. Stegger
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): John Jorgensen, Rebecca Bland, Joy Waite-Cusic, Jovana Kovacevic
Single cell microorganisms including pathogens relentlessly face myriads of physicochemical stresses in their living environment. In order to survive and multiply under such unfavorable conditions, microbes have evolved with complex genetic networks, which allow them to sense and respond against these stresses. Stringent response is one such adaptive mechanism where bacteria can survive under nutrient starvation and other related stresses. The effector molecules for the stringent response are guanosine-5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) and guanosine-3', 5'-bis(diphosphate) (ppGpp), together called (p)ppGpp. These eff...
Y. Ding et al.
COVID-19 has rapidly and radically changed the face of human health and social interaction. As was the case with COVID-19, the world is similarly unprepared to respond to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the...
This study descri...
Publication date: December 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 23Author(s): Michael S.M. Brouwer, Richard N. Goodman, Arie Kant, Dik Mevius, Enas Newire, Adam P. Roberts, Kees T. Veldman
CONCLUSIONS: At present, the prevalence of linezolid resistance has become increasingly serious. The resistance gene optrA has been reported in Enterococcus, Staphylococcus squirrel and Streptococcus, which indicates that this gene has a strong ability to spread across bacteria, so the prevalence and spread of optrA gene should be monitored carefully. PMID: 33015768 [PubMed - in process]