Cancer 'breathalyser' could spot disease early and revolutionise diagnosis
The test is designed to pick up early signs of the disease which enter the breath and become airborne. Doctors say it could save thousands of lives each year.
Authors: Li T, Han J, Jia L, Hu X, Chen L, Wang Y Abstract A change in the metabolic flux of glucose from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is regarded as one hallmark of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic switch between aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS are unclear. Here we show that the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), one of the rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis, interacts with mitofusin 2 (MFN2), a key regulator of mitochondrial fusion, to promote mitochondrial fusion and OXPHOS, and attenuate glycolysis. mTOR increases the PKM2:MFN2 interaction by p...
In conclusion, CD133 promoted the upregulation of CSC/TSC-related genes in glioma cells, while enhancing the neurosphere-forming ability and in-vivo oncogenicity. PMID: 30891998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In this study, several cerasome-forming lipoamino acids (CFLA) were synthesized and used as structural blocks for cerasome preparation. Pure cerasomes which contained only CFLA, and mixed cerasomes based on a mixture of CFLA with a disintegrating dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid were fabricated and characterized in terms of morphology, mean size, ζ-potential, stability at storage. All obtained cerasome samples were found to be much more stable at storage than conventional liposomes (120 and 10 days, respectively). The cerasomes were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and tested in vitro using human breast aden...
Taxol is a common chemotherapy (CTX) drug that is associated with the development of neuropathy. Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is the dose limiting toxicity of this CTX drug. Paclitaxel exerts its therapeutic effect by binding to β-tubulin, which interferes with microtubule dynamics and results in microtubule stabilization, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis of cancer cells. However, microtubules are critical for axonal function and for the transport of essential organelles to distal nerve endings.
The objectives of this work were to study 1) effects of oxaliplatin on membrane excitability in Isoletcin B4-positive and –negative (IB4+ and IB4-) subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and 2) targeting oxaliplatin-induced membrane hyperexcitability to relief neuropathic pain.
Tongue cancer patients suffer severe, chronic pain driven by oral cancer-induced activation of sensory neurons innervating the oral cavity. However, the impact of sensory neurotransmission on oral carcinogenesis is understudied. Local neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons innervating the cancer has been linked to cancer growth and immune suppression. We hypothesize that oral cancer-induced neurotransmitter release from trigeminal sensory neurons (TGNs) promotes oral cancer proliferation and suppresses the immune response.
The experience of cancer pain is poorly understood from the perspective of African Americans, who experience higher levels of pain, more pain-related distress, and poorer function than Caucasians. Perceived control over pain has been shown to lead to decreased pain and distress and improved functional status. Perceived control over pain may play a role in the adequacy of prescriptions received by African American patients with cancer pain. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between factors affecting analgesic prescriptions and perceived control over pain in African Americans with cancer pain.
The current study assessed associations of clinical characteristics and all-cause mortality among a cohort of Veterans initiating pain services. Analyses were also stratified by age to examine potential variations. Demographic (male, age), medical comorbidities (diabetes, myocardial infarction, chronic pulmonary conditions, cancer, renal disease, liver disease), pain characteristics (pain intensity, opioid analgesic prescription), and mental health characteristics (depression, opioid use disorder, opioid poisoning/suicide attempts) were extracted from Veterans Health Administration records.
Acute postoperative pain is a predictable response and when left untreated can lead to chronic pain, prolonged rehabilitation, and other complications after breast surgery. Pectoral nerve block (PECSB) has been recently reported as an analgesic method for BCS. In recent literature, it is evident that PECSB significantly reduced intraoperative opioid usage, postoperative pain, PONV, and postoperative opioid requirements. Introduction of ultrasound in regional anesthesia practice influenced the practice and choice of blocks for any given surgery.
Among insured adults, patients with cancer have more pharmacy claims and claims for higher doses of opioids. Patients with cancer also remain exempt from most state legislation and policy initiatives on prescribing opioids, necessitating a critical understanding of opioid management and risks among this group. This multi-method study investigated pain and opioid self-management practices reported by adult cancer patients recruited from an outpatient oncology clinic of an NCI-designated cancer center (n=65; mean age 56.3, SD=12.3; pain 6.0, SD=2.8;>50% with metastatic disease; IRB approval, University of Pennsylvania).