Altered Microbiome in Patients With Cirrhosis and Complications

In patients with cirrhosis, the gut microbiome are affected by multiple gut and systemic alterations. These changes lead to dysbiosis in the microbiota of different parts of the body, resulting in inflammation. The constant immune stimulation resulting in part from dysbiosis is associated with morbidity in patients with cirrhosis. Dysbiosis as a dynamic event worsens with decompensation such as with hepatic encephalopathy, infections or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). These microbial patterns could be applied as diagnostic and prognostic measures in cirrhosis in the outpatient and inpatient setting.
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Microbiome in specific diseases Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: SOF-based DAA regimens are effective and safe in the heterogeneous highly admixed Brazilian population and could remain an option for HCV treatment at least in low-income countries. PMID: 31537509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2019Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Shivaram Prasad Singh, Rakesh Kumar BarikAbstractNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, despite the growing recognition of this important disease burden, there are significant challenges to accurately and non-invasively diagnose the various forms of NAFLD, especially to differentiate benig...
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Serial thoracentesis may be recommended for management of hepatic hydrothorax and surgical management can be a useful option in patients with refractory hepatic hydrothorax, alternative to pigtail drainage. PMID: 31538429 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Dong Y, Li G Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease in developed countries and is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. It is defined as steatosis in over 5% of hepatocytes. The disease spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, even hepatic cirrhosis. The disease affects various extra-hepatic systems such as the cardiovascular system and urinary system. Heart-related disease is identified as the leading cause of mor...
Source: Herz - Category: Cardiology Tags: Herz Source Type: research
Authors: Zuwala-Jagiello J, Pazgan-Simon M, Simon K, Kukla M, Murawska-Cialowicz E, Grzebyk E Abstract The presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with cirrhosis is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) which may represent an increased susceptibility to infections. Endocan is a key player in the regulation of inflammatory disorders, and a biomarker in bacteremia and sepsis. To investigate the association between both endocan and DM, and developing SBP, we conducted a retrospective cohort study. Three hundred and thirty patients (179 men, 151 women; mean age 61.0 ...
Source: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Physiol Pharmacol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of NK and CD4+ T-cells in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals with advanced liver fibrosis have been previously described. Here, we show that advanced liver fibrosis in coinfected individuals is associated to a defective function of NK cells and an increased expression of the exhaustion/senescence marker PD-1. This NK signature could not be attributed to changes in the ability of CD4+ T-cells to modulate NK cell function. PMID: 31536177 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Arka De, Ajay DusejaAbstractThe histological spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), NASH related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes with or without fibrosis is the key-feature which differentiates NASH from NAFL. Liver biopsy is the only reliable method for diagnosing NAFL and differentiating it from NASH. Although the epidemiology of NAFL...
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Using modified serum lab thresholds, addition of liver fibrosis indices, and/or abdominal US can increase detection of liver nodularity in CF. A combination of GGT, GPR, and APRI can help direct which CF children should undergo US evaluation. These tools may improve earlier identification of fibrosis and/or cirrhosis in CF patients.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Hepatology Source Type: research
This study was conducted to examine the host inflammatory responses to C. sinensis ESPs and their putative protein components selected from C. sinensis expressed sequenced tag (EST) pool databases, including TGF-β receptor interacting protein 1(CsTRIP1), legumain (CsLeg), and growth factor binding protein 2 (CsGrb2). Treatment of CCA cells (HuCCT1) with the ESPs or bacterial recombinant C. sinensis proteins differentially promoted the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2) in a time-dependent manner. In par...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health burden affecting around 257 million people worldwide. The consequences of chronic HBV infection include progressive liver damage, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although current direct antiviral therapies successfully lead to suppression of viral replication and deceleration of liver cirrhosis progression, these treatments are rarely curative and patients often require a life-long therapy. Based on the ability of the immune system to control HBV infection in at least a subset of patients, immunotherapeutic approaches are promising treatment ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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