PERSPECTIVES Hepatitis E Virus Genome Structure and Replication Strategy

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) possesses many of the features of other positive-stranded RNA viruses but also adds HEV-specific nuances, making its virus–host interactions unique. Slow virus replication kinetics and fastidious growth conditions, coupled with the historical lack of an efficient cell culture system to propagate the virus, have left many gaps in our understanding of its structure and replication cycle. Recent advances in culturing selected strains of HEV and resolving the 3D structure of the viral capsid are filling in knowledge gaps, but HEV remains an extremely understudied pathogen. Many steps in the HEV life cycle and many aspects of HEV pathogenesis remain unknown, such as the host and viral factors that determine cross-species infection, the HEV-specific receptor(s) on host cells, what determines HEV chronicity and the ability to replicate in extrahepatic sites, and what regulates processing of the open reading frame 1 (ORF1) nonstructural polyprotein.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Zeng Q, Zhao L, Wang C, Gao M, Han X, Chen C, Tu C, Han P, Li J Abstract Background: A high prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been observed in patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD); however, data on the clinical relationship between AILD and AITD remain scant. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between AILD and AITD.Methods: We performed a retrospective study using medical records from 324 patients with AILD, 113 of whom had concurrent AITD.Results: Patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) were more likely to develop AITD (45.8%), followed by autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliar...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Authors: Martínez Lozano H, Conthe Alonso A, Bañares R Abstract INTRODUCTION: hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Since the generalization of vaccination, its incidence had markedly declined. Nevertheless, several HAV-outbreaks have been described in the last decade, mainly related to contaminated alimentary products. In recent years, a new pattern of acute HAV infection has been described with changes in the demographic profile of the infected population, which is more common in healthy young men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a retrospective case series stud...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Nasser Sharareh, Rachel Hess, Scott White, Angela Dunn, Phillip M. Singer, Jerry CochranAbstractAfter the 2014–2015 HIV outbreak in Scott County, Indiana, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a nationwide analysis to identify vulnerable counties to an outbreak of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and prevent such an outbreak in the future. We developed a jurisdiction-level vulnerability assessment for HCV infections associated with injection drug use (IDU) in Utah.We us...
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
In conclusion, additional NLGSs correlate with HBsAg-negativity despite HBV-reactivation, and hamper HBsAg-antigenicity in vitro, supporting the role of NGSs in immune-escape and the importance of HBV-DNA for a proper diagnosis of HBV-reactivation.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Kellie Young, Benny Liu, Taft Bhuket, Robert J. WongAbstractBackground &AimsDirect-acting antivirals (DAAs) are expected to improve outcomes for hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients following liver transplantation (LT). We aim to evaluate trends in post-LT outcomes with availability of DAAs.MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated U.S. adults transplanted from 1/1/2002 – 3/31/2018 using the United Network for Organ Sharing registry, stratified by pre-DAA (1/1/2002-12/31/2013) vs. post-DAA (1/1/2014-3/31/201...
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Authors: Ayyala-Somayajula D, Han H, Terrault NA Abstract Introduction: Severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (sAH) portends high morbidity and mortality and there are no effective therapies for those ineligible or unresponsive to corticosteroids. Early liver transplantation (LT), defined as transplant without a mandated period of sobriety, for sAH, is being increasingly considered as a rescue therapy.Areas covered: PubMed and manual searches were combined and last performed on October 28th 2019. Key search terms were "alcoholic hepatitis", "abstinence", "alcohol relapse", and "live...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2020Source: Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 65Author(s): Ahmed Arafa, Ehab S. Eshak, Tarek A. Abdel Rahman, Manal M. AnwarAbstractBackgroundA growing body of evidence has suggested an association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and risk of pancreatic cancer (PAC). Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis of available evidence to explore this association.MethodsWe systematically retrieved studies that investigated the association between HCV infection and risk of PAC. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) of PAC for patients with HCV infection was calculated using ...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy and safety of associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) in patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Background: ALPSS allows curative resection of conventionally-unresectable liver tumors. However, its role in HCC is largely unknown. Methods: Consecutive HCC patients who underwent ALPPS at our center between April 2013 and September 2017 were retrospectively studied. The oncological results were compared with patients receiving transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), and patien...
Source: Annals of Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
An estimated 4.1 million people in the United States are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In 2014, the Hepatitis C Community Alliance to Test and Treat (HepCCATT) collaborative was formed to address hepatitis C in Chicago. From 2014 to 2017, the HepCCATT Case Management Program case managed 181 HCV-infected people and performed on-site capacity building at a 6-site community health center (CHC) that produced codified protocols, which were translated into a telehealth program to build capacity within CHCs to deliver hepatitis C care. HepCCATT's innovative approach to addressing multilevel barriers is a potential model...
Source: Family and Community Health - Category: Primary Care Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the homeless population is underestimated despite multiple behavioral risks. Data from a sample of 534 homeless adults from downtown Los Angeles were analyzed to examine the prevalence and predictors of HBV infection in this community. The prevalence of HBV was 7 to 10 times higher than in the US general population rate. Opiate dependence, injection and noninjection use, was an independent predictor of HBV exposure. Testing and counseling occurred at significantly lower rates for HBV than for human immunodeficiency virus. Findings emphasize the need to enhance screening and coun...
Source: Family and Community Health - Category: Primary Care Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
More News: Hepatitis | History of Medicine | Men | Research