Dissociating effect of salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus on human fibroblasts: potential impact on Borrelia transmission

Publication date: Available online 23 December 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Amandine Boeuf, Gilles Schnell, Quentin Bernard, Aurelie Kern, Benoît Westermann, Laurence Ehret-Sabatier, Antoine Grillon, Frederic Schramm, Benoît Jaulhac, Nathalie BoulangerAbstractUnderstanding the mechanism of pathogen transmission is essential for the development of strategies to reduce arthropod-borne diseases. The pharmaco- and immunomodulatory properties of insect and acarine saliva play an essential role in the efficiency of pathogen transmission. The skin as the site where arthropod saliva and pathogens are inoculated - represents the key interface in vector-borne diseases. We identified tick molecules potentially involved in pathogen transmission, using micro-HPLC and mass spectrometry, followed by in vitro assays on human skin cells. Histone H4 isolated from Ixodes ricinus salivary gland extract was identified as a molecule with a dissociating effect on human primary fibroblasts. This histone might be involved in the formation of the feeding pool formed around the tick mouthparts and responsible of tissue necrosis in the vertebrate host. Thanks to its selective antimicrobial activity, it may also sterilize the feeding pool and facilitate transmission of pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Seunghee Lee, Hyunkyoung Lee, Jung-Won Park, Soon-Seek Yoon, Hyun-Ji Seo, Jinhyeong Noh, Mi-Sun Yoo, Keun-Ho Kim, Yeojin Park, Yun Sang Cho, Byung Jae So
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Cecilie Lerche Nordberg, Jacob Bodilsen, Fredrikke Christie Knudtzen, Merete Storgaard, Christian Brandt, Lothar Wiese, Birgitte Rønde Hansen, Åse Bengård Andersen, Henrik Nielsen, Anne-Mette Lebech, DASGIB study groupAbstractThe goal of this paper is to characterize the clinical presentation, serological results, current antibiotic treatment practice, including compliance with current European guidelines, and outcome in adults with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) diagnosed at department of infectious diseases ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
The incidence of tick-borne infections in the United States has risen significantly in the past decade. Ticks can transmit a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, that can cause serious illnesses. Therefore, the use of rapid, sensitive, and specific multiplex tests is important to identify the pathogen(s) in the acute phase and determine appropriate treatment to minimize the severity of the disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ChromaCode’s research use only (RUO) nine-target high-definition PCR (HDPCR) tick-borne pathogen (TBP) panel using 379 retrospective, remnant whole-bloo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Parasitology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The interleukin-6/interleukin-10 ratio can be used as a rapid diagnostic cue upon suspected tick-borne infection, enabling fast and correct treatment. Also, in serology-negative results, such information may strengthen a clinical suspicion.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Medicine Reports Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Mariska Kerstholt, Mihai G. Netea, Leo A.B. JoostenAbstractChanges in cellular metabolism have proven to be important factors in driving cell behavior. It has been shown that cellular metabolism of immune cells changes when exposed to or infected by several pathogens: while this is often an adaptation of the host cells to the infection, sometimes it represents a mechanism through which the pathogens evade immune activation. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a pathogen that highly depe...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Lyme disease (LD), which is caused by genospecies of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, is the most common vector-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere. Spirochetes are transmitted by Ixodes ticks and maintained in diverse vertebrate animal hosts. Following tick bite, spirochetes initially establish a localized infection in the skin. However, they may also disseminate hematogenously to several distal sites, including heart, joints, or the CNS. Because they need to survive in diverse microenvironments, from tick vector to mammalian hosts, spirochetes have developed multiple strategies to combat the numerous hos...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study investigated Borrelia prevalence and species distribution in ticks removed from humans and sent as diagnostic material to the Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, in 2013-2017. A probe-based real-time PCR was carried out and Borrelia-positive samples were subjected to species determination by reverse line blot (RLB), including a B. miyamotoi-specific probe. The overall Borrelia-infection rate as determined by real-time PCR was 20.02 % (510/2547, 95 % CI: 18.48–21.63 %), with annual prevalences ranging from 17.17 % (90/524, 95 % CI: 14.04–20.68 %) in 2014 to 24.12 % ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Abstract Ixodes scapularis is currently known to transmit 7 pathogens responsible for Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, ehrlichiosis, and Powassan encephalitis. Ixodes scapularis can also be colonized by endosymbiotic bacteria including those in the genus of Rickettsia. We screened 459 I. scapularis ticks submitted to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Tick Testing Laboratory with the objectives to (1) examine differences in infection prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, and Borrelia miyamotoi, (2) evaluate whether prevalence...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
The prevalence of tickborne diseases worldwide is increasing virtually unchecked due to the lack of effective control strategies. The transmission dynamics of tickborne pathogens are influenced by the tick microbiome, tick co-infection with other pathogens, and environmental features. Understanding this complex system could lead to new strategies for pathogen control, but will require large-scale, high-resolution data. Here, we introduce Project Acari, a citizen science-based project to assay, at single-tick resolution, species, pathogen infection status, microbiome profile, and environmental conditions of tens of thousand...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Tom G. Schwan, Sandra J. Raffel, James M. BattistiAbstractThe relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii and the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto each produces an abundant, orthologous, outer membrane protein, Vtp and OspC, respectively, when transmitted by tick bite. Gene inactivation studies have shown that both proteins are essential for spirochete infectivity when transmitted by their respective tick vectors. Therefore, we transformed a vtp-minus mutant of B. hermsii with ospC from B. burgdorferi...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
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