Interplay Between Amphetamine and Activity Level in Gene Networks of the Mouse Striatum.

Interplay Between Amphetamine and Activity Level in Gene Networks of the Mouse Striatum. Bioinform Biol Insights. 2018;12:1177932218815152 Authors: Goncalves TM, Southey BR, Rodriguez-Zas SL Abstract The psychostimulant amphetamine can be prescribed to ameliorate the symptoms of narcolepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and to facilitate weight loss. This stimulant can also have negative effects including toxicity and addiction risk. The impact of amphetamine on gene networks is partially understood and this study addresses this gap in consideration of the physical activity. The striata of mice exposed to either amphetamine or saline treatment were compared in a mouse line selected for home cage physical overactivity, a phenotype that can be mitigated with amphetamine, and in a contemporary control line using RNA-seq. Genes presenting opposite expression patterns between treatments across lines included a pseudogene of coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 gene (Chchd2), ribonuclease P RNA component H1 (Rpph1), short stature homeobox 2 (Shox2), transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (Trpm6), and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 9 (Tnfrsf9). Genes presenting consistent treatment patterns across lines, albeit at different levels of significance included cholecystokinin (Cck), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (Vip), arginine vasopressin (Avp), oxytocin/neurophysin (Oxt), thyrotropin releasing hormone (Trh),...
Source: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Bioinform Biol Insights Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Physiology &BehaviorAuthor(s): Elizabeth Sahagun, Lauren M. Ward, Kimberly P. KinzigAbstractKetogenic diets (KDs) are high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets that have been used therapeutically for decades, most notably for the treatment of epilepsy and diabetes. Recent data, however, suggest that KD may impart protective effects on mood disorders. The current experiments test the hypothesis that KDs can protect from stress-induced symptoms of mood disorders. To test this, we assessed behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of KD in male and female Long Evans rats. Animal...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Katsuhiko Noguchi, Kimio Sugaya, Saori Nishijima, Mayuko Sakanashi, Katsumi Kadekawa, Katsuhiro Ashitomi, Shiho Okitsu, Hideyuki YamamotoAbstractAimsLigation of the urethra to create partial bladder outlet obstruction has widely been used as an animal model of bladder obstruction, although obstructive bladder dysfunction may be due to both mechanical and functional obstruction. Previous studies in rodents have demonstrated that long-term nitric oxide (NO) deficiency can lead to detrusor overactivity, and lack of NO may thus cause impairment of...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yun-Feng Zhou, Li Feng, Xin-Min Liu, Xue Tao, Li-Sha Wang, Meng-Di Zhang, Zhi Wang, Shan-Guang Chen, Qi ChangAbstractAimsThe present study aims to investigate the impacts of olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) on urinary metabolic profile and tryptophan metabolites in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats, and to explore the regulation effects of fluoxetine.Main methodsOBX model was developed by aspiration of olfactory bulbs. After fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, urine samples were collected and behavior tests were applied. Tryptophan (TRP) ...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical EngineeringAuthor(s): Bayram Andak, Erhan Özduğan, Selçuk Türdü, A. Nusret BulutcuAbstractA hydrometallurgical process is proposed for zinc and manganese recycling from waste zinc-carbon and alkaline battery mixtures as sulfate salts. The collected scrap battery mixture is crushed, sieved, magnetically separated and ground using industrial scale equipment in order to represent realistic battery powder content. The obtained fine powder, which contains high iron (2% w/w), is subjected to three-stage washing at 25...
Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: American Journal of Family Therapy - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Social Science &MedicineAuthor(s): Frances ThirlwayAbstractTobacco use in high-income countries correlates with socio-economic disadvantage, but although switching to electronic cigarettes could be a safer alternative, little is known about barriers to use. Drawing on eighteen months of data collection in two areas of Northern England in 2017/18 including ethnography and interviews with 59 smokers and e-cigarette users, I show that concern about continued nicotine addiction either deterred working-class smokers from switching to e-cigarettes or dictated the condi...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
The idea that a pill can supersize human intelligence is decidedly science fiction. But plenty of real-world researchers and drug-makers are working to develop nootropics: pills, supplements and other substances designed to improve various aspects of cognition. A rough translation for the word “nootropic” comes from the Greek for “to bend or shape the mind.” And already, there are dozens of over-the-counter (OTC) products—many of which are sold widely online or in stores—that claim to boost creativity, memory, decision-making or other high-level brain functions. Some of the most popular ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Drugs Source Type: news
Nearly 80 years since their first therapeutic use, stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamines remain amongst the most widely relied upon class of medications, with an estimated 90 million annual prescriptions in the USA alone (Swanson and Volkow, 2009; AMA, 1937; IMS Health, 2014). A range of new therapeutic applications for stimulants are being actively investigated although, currently, they are primarily prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and occasionally for narcolepsy and treatment-resistant depression (Adler, 2008; AAP, 2011; Alpert and Fava, 2014; Challman and Lipsky, 2000).
Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Full length article Source Type: research
Call it a case of unintended consequences. Twenty years ago, the prescription medication Adderall debuted as a treatment for narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A stimulant, with amphetamine as its active ingredient, Adderall helped sufferers of narcolepsy stay awake, but it also increased mental focus and endurance for those diagnosed with ADHD. Because of its effectiveness and relatively mild side effects, Adderall quickly became a common treatment for ADHD. But as its popularity increased, use of Adderall also began spreading beyond the people it was intended for. Today, students without ADH...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Addiction ADHD and ADD Children and Teens College Habits Medications Psychology Recovery Stimulants Students Success & Achievement Adderall Amphetamine attention Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder cognitive enhancement Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Healthcare providers in general, and specifically those in the mental health and substance abuse fields, should keep in mind that nootropic use is an under recognized and evolving problem. Nootropic use should be considered in cases where there are sudden or unexplained exacerbations of psychiatric symptoms in patients who have been stable and medication adherent. It is also important to remember that most nootropics are not detected on standard drug toxicology screening tests. We have very little clinical information on how nootropics may interact with psychotropics (or other medications) and potentially cause ...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Case Series and Literature Review Current Issue Mental Disorders Psychiatry Psychopharmacology Substance Use Disorders Ampakines Armodafinil brain enhancer Cerebrolysin Citicoline cognitive enhancer homeopathic medicine natural r Source Type: research
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