Healthcare-associated infections: the hallmark of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus with review of the literature

Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 101, Issue 1Author(s): J.A. Al-Tawfiq, P.G. AuwaerterSummaryMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is capable of causing acute respiratory illness. Laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases may be asymptomatic, have mild disease, or have a life-threatening infection with a high case fatality rate. There are three patterns of transmission: sporadic community cases from presumed non-human exposure, family clusters arising from contact with an infected family index case, and healthcare-acquired infections among patients and from patients to healthcare workers. Healthcare-acquired MERS infection has become a well-known characteristic of the disease and a leading means of spread. The main factors contributing to healthcare-associated outbreaks include delayed recognition, inadequate infection control measures, inadequate triaging and isolation of suspected MERS or other respiratory illness patients, crowding, and patients remaining in the emergency department for many days. A review of the literature suggests that effective control of hospital outbreaks was accomplished in most instances by the application of proper infection control procedures. Prompt recognition, isolation and management of suspected cases are key factors for prevention of the spread of MERS. Repeated assessments of infection control and monitoring of corrective measures contribute to changing the course of an outbreak. Limiti...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Related Links:

We describe a collaborative study to investigate the comparability of serologic assays for MERS-CoV and assess any benefit associated with the introduction of a standard reference reagent for MERS-CoV serology. Our study findings indicate that, when possible, laboratories should use a testing algorithm including>2 tests to ensure correct diagnosis of MERS-CoV. We also demonstrate that the use of a reference reagent greatly improves the agreement between assays, enabling more consistent and therefore more meaningful comparisons between results. PMID: 31423969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
Outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome in 2012 and fatal swine acute diarrhea syndrome in 2017 caused serious infectious diseases in humans and in livestock, resulting in serious public health threats and huge economic losses. All such coronaviruses (CoVs) were confirmed to originate from bats. To continuously monitor the epidemic-related CoVs in bats, virome analysis was used to classify CoVs from 831 bats of 15 species in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Sichuan Provinces between August 2016 and May 2017. We identified 11 CoV strains from 22 individual samples of four bat spec...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
From 1 through 30 June 2019, the National International Health Regulations (IHR) Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 7 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection. These cases were from Al-Qassim (3 cases), Riyadh (2 cases), Madinah (1 death) and Eastern (1 case) regions. One of the newly reported cases is a health care worker, contact of a case included in the Disease outbreak news published on16 July 2019(Case no. 14). Two deaths were reported, one (Case no. 5) from the current reporting month, and a second death (Case no. 13) previously described as a case in the Disease outbreak news on16...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
Emergence and re-emergence of respiratory virus infections represent a significant threat to global public health, as they occur seasonally and less frequently (such in the case of influenza virus) as pandemic infections. Some of these viruses have been in the human population for centuries and others had recently emerged as a public health problem. Influenza viruses have been affecting the human population for a long time now; however, their ability to rapidly evolve through antigenic drift and antigenic shift causes the emergence of new strains. A recent example of these events is the avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus ou...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study examined the public’s preventive behavioral responses during the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in Korea and the influencing factors. Two cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted by Gallup Korea using random digit dialing in June 2015 (n = 2004). The main outcome variables were nonpharmaceutical preventive measures (survey (1): Measures for reducing transmission (handwashing, face masks); and survey (2): Measures for avoiding contact with others). Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the factors influencing preventive behaviors. In survey (1),...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and its infection has been reported over 20 countries. Roughly 10,000 human cases were reported and fatality reaches up to 40%. The majority of cases occurred in Saudi Arabia and mostly sporadic outside the country except the outbreak in South Korea in 2015. The Korean MERS-CoV isolate was isolated from the second Korean patient and its genome was fully sequenced and deposited. To develop virus-specific protective and therapeutic agents against the Korean isolate and to investigate molecular determinants o...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Source: World Health Organization (WHO). Published: 6/2019. This 21-page protocol provides health care and public health professionals guidance on how to investigate the role of environmental contamination during outbreaks of MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus) in a health care setting where a patient infected with MERS-CoV is currently being treated. The results from such studies will be used in risk assessment and risk management of MERS-CoV hospital-acquired infections, and also for guiding the implementation and monitoring of effectiveness of infection prevention and control measures. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
From 9 through 30 April 2019, the National International Health Regulations (IHR) Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported nine additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including three deaths.
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
In this study, we used rabbits to further characterize the transmission potential of MERS-CoV. In line with the presence of MERS-CoV receptor in the rabbit nasal epithelium, high levels of viral RNA were shed from the nose following virus inoculation. However, unlike MERS-CoV-infected dromedaries, these rabbits did not develop clinical manifestations including nasal discharge and did shed only limited amounts of infectious virus from the nose. Consistently, no transmission by contact or airborne routes was observed in rabbits. Our data indicate that despite relatively high viral RNA levels produced, low levels of infectiou...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Rui Dong1, Lily He1, Rong Lucy He2 and Stephen S.-T. Yau1* 1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 2Department of Biological Sciences, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL, United States Classification of DNA sequences is an important issue in the bioinformatics study, yet most existing methods for phylogenetic analysis including Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) are time-consuming and computationally expensive. The alignment-free methods are popular nowadays, whereas the manual intervention in those methods usually decreases the accuracy. Also, the interactions among nucleotid...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
More News: Coronavirus | Emergency Medicine | Hospitals | Infectious Diseases | Laboratory Medicine | MERS | Middle East Health | Outbreaks | Respiratory Medicine