PERSPECTIVES Autophagy in Tuberculosis

Autophagy as an immune mechanism controls inflammation and acts as a cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An equally significant role of autophagy is its anti-inflammatory and tissue-sparing function. This combination of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions prevents active disease in animal models. In human populations, genetic links between autophagy, inflammatory bowel disease, and susceptibility to tuberculosis provide further support to these combined roles of autophagy. The autophagic control of M. tuberculosis and prevention of progressive disease provide novel insights into physiological and immune control of tuberculosis. It also offers host-based therapeutic opportunities because autophagy can be pharmacologically modulated.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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Abstract Histoplasmosis is a global disease endemic to regions of all six inhabited continents. The areas of highest endemicity lie within the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys of North America and parts of Central and South America. As a result of climate change and anthropogenic land utilization, the conditions suitable for Histoplasma capsulatum are changing, leading to a corresponding change in epidemiology. The clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis are protean, variably resembling other common conditions such as community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, or malignancy. Maki...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 013-030 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1698429Histoplasmosis is a global disease endemic to regions of all six inhabited continents. The areas of highest endemicity lie within the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys of North America and parts of Central and South America. As a result of climate change and anthropogenic land utilization, the conditions suitable for Histoplasma capsulatum are changing, leading to a corresponding change in epidemiology. The clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis are protean, variably resembling other common conditions such as community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculo...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Crohn ’s disease (CD) is an uncommon disease in Thai population, leading to delay in diagnosis due to lacking of familiarity, which may increase disease complications. One of the most problematic issues is to differentiate CD from intestinal tuberculosis (ITB), and many scoring systems have been introdu ced since 2006. However, competency of diagnosis of CD in the latter period is still unknown in Thailand. Our aim is to compare this competency in the period of 2000-2006, 2007-2012, and 2013-2018.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Diagnostics in IBD Source Type: research
Biological agents have revolutionized the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is a known increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation with biologic therapy (1). ACG guidelines recommend screening for active and latent TB infection (LTBI) prior to starting certain biologic agents (2). However, there are no consensus guideline on the utility of yearly screening testing in IBD patients without TB risk factors. With a number of patients now receiving the biologic therapy outside their primary care centers it has become increasingly difficult to effectively provide ongoing TB screening.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Practice Management/Quality of Care/Quality Assurance Source Type: research
Conclusions: The rate of extrapulmonary involvement, side effects of anti-TB medications, and clinical outcomes did not differ between the IBD patients who initially developed TB during anti-TNF therapy and non-IBD patients with TB. On the other hand, the IBD patients had a lower rate of AFB smear positivity and a higher proportion of non-respiratory symptoms. PMID: 31986571 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Korean J Gastroenter... - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Korean J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Pathology - Research and Practice, Volume 216, Issue 1Author(s): Hui Wang, Rani KanthanAbstractAmoebiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, though a relatively common parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions, is uncommon in the developed countries. In these countries, as amoebic colitis shares similar clinical symptoms and endoscopic features with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these cases can be easily unrecognized and misdiagnosed.In this case report, we discuss the case of an adult patient with invasive intestinal amoebiasis, who was init...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Rationale: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) usually occurs in children and young adults. Gastrointestinal involvement is rare. EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder manifesting as intestinal ulcers poses diagnostic challenges clinically and pathologically because of the atypical manifestations. We concluded that some indicators according to our case and literatures, which might be helpful to the diagnosis of EBV-associated LPD manifested as intestinal ulcers. Patient concerns: Here we present a 26-year-old man with complaints of diarrhea and abdominal pain that...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Authors: Lai HC, Chang CH, Cheng KS, Chen TW, Tsai YY, Chou JW Abstract Taiwan has a lower prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a higher prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection than Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of latent TB (LTB) and active TB infection in IBD patients treated with biological agents. From January 2000 to September 2018, we retrospectively collected data from IBD patients treated with biological agents at a tertiary referral center. Patients underwent a QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT) to screen for TB infection before and after biological ...
Source: Gastroenterology Research and Practice - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gastroenterol Res Pract Source Type: research
The differential diagnosis of Crohn disease (CD) from intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL) is challenging in patients who exhibit atypical clinical characteristics. The aim of the present study was to explore the serum proteome profiles of CD, PIL and ITB and to identify their differentiations. Treatment-naïve patients with CD (n = 10), PIL (n = 10) and ITB (n = 10) were enrolled in the present study. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in patient serum samples were compared between groups using tandem mass tag labeled proteomic technology. A principal component analysi...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Diagnostic Accuracy Study Source Type: research
ConclusionFissurectomy with posterior midline internal sphincterotomy and mucosal anoplasty is safe with minimal complications. It is still a dependable alternative treatment for chronic posterior anal fissures. The fear of keyhole deformity can be well addressed with the added anoplasty.
Source: Current Medicine Research and Practice - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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