PERSPECTIVES How to Make a Heart Valve: From Embryonic Development to Bioengineering of Living Valve Substitutes

Cardiac valve disease is a significant cause of ill health and death worldwide, and valve replacement remains one of the most common cardiac interventions in high-income economies. Despite major advances in surgical treatment, long-term therapy remains inadequate because none of the current valve substitutes have the potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth of native structures. Valve development is coordinated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways and environmental cues that cause disease when perturbed. Cardiac valves develop from endocardial cushions that become populated by valve precursor mesenchyme formed by an epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). The mesenchymal precursors, subsequently, undergo directed growth, characterized by cellular compartmentalization and layering of a structured extracellular matrix (ECM). Knowledge gained from research into the development of cardiac valves is driving exploration into valve biomechanics and tissue engineering directed at creating novel valve substitutes endowed with native form and function.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: The Biology of Heart Disease PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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ConclusionPredicting overall readmissions after open ‐heart valve surgery is difficult as causes of readmissions vary and different causes are associated with different characteristics. Future studies should target reducing cause‐specific readmissions.
Source: Journal of Cardiac Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Discussion The aortic valve usually has 3 leaflets. In bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) there are 2 asymmetric leaflets with a fish-mouthed orifice between them which may not open fully. It occurs in about 0.5-2% of the population making it one of the most common congenital heart anomalies and the most common one in adults. Transmission is autosomal dominant yet males are more likely to have BAV, indicating potential reduced penetrance in females. “BAVs are different, however, in that the tissue pathology is not limited to the valves’ leaflets but extends from the left ventricular outflow tract to the ascending thor...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared patient-specific 3D-printed...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: 3 ways to advance 3D printing in radiology 3D printing helps unravel rare cardiac anomalies 3D printing may improve safety of upper GI surgery Wash. groups partner on 3D printing for heart disease 3D printing technique improves heart valve sizing
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
AbstractPeri-operative echocardiography is widely used because it provides information that significantly influences clinical/surgical management and improves outcome in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The role of intra-operative trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) in valvular heart disease cannot be emphasized enough. Increasing use of newer surgical techniques —valve repairs and minimal invasive cardiac surgery also warrants intra-operative TEE. It gives us better insight into the anatomy and physiology of the valvular lesion by digital imaging. This manuscript provides an illustrative case based overview ...
Source: Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
This study shows that CA are released from periventricular and subpial regions to the cerebrospinal fluid and are present in the cervical lymph nodes, into which cerebrospinal fluid drains through the meningeal lymphatic system. We also show that CA can be phagocytosed by macrophages. We conclude that CA can act as containers that remove waste products from the brain and may be involved in a mechanism that cleans the brain. Moreover, we postulate that CA may contribute in some autoimmune brain diseases, exporting brain substances that interact with the immune system, and hypothesize that CA may contain brain markers that m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: November 2019Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 26, Issue 6Author(s): Vincent M. Brandenburg, Alexander Schuh, Rafael KramannAccelerated and premature cardiovascular calcification is a hallmark of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The presence and the amount of cardiovascular calcification are among the driving forces of increased morbidity and mortality in renal patients. Cardiovascular calcification occurs at different sites, including the cardiac valves—a location that is of particular importance for both the patient and the treating phy...
Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
hitlock RP Abstract Managing severe valvular heart disease with mechanical valve replacement necessitates lifelong anticoagulation with a vitamin K antagonist. Optimal anticoagulation intensity for patients with mechanical valves remains uncertain; current recommendations are inconsistent across guideline bodies and largely based on expert opinion. In this review, we outline the history of anticoagulation therapy in patients with mechanical heart valves and critically evaluate current antithrombotic guidelines for these patients. We conclude that randomized trials evaluating optimal anticoagulation intensity in pa...
Source: Circulation - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circulation Source Type: research
Conclusions: Infective endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae is very rare, particularly in patients without underlying structural heart disease. This study showed that IE due to S. Agalactiae is a disease with high mortality when associated with neurological complication, heart failure but especially when it is recurrent and hits valve prosthesis.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Conclusions: Elevated postoperative lactate blood level was associated with a higher risk of postoperative death. PMID: 31708983 [PubMed]
Source: Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol Source Type: research
How are clinicians integrating 3D printing technology into adult cardiovascular...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: 3D-bioprinted model mimics real human heart properties 4D flow MRI, 3D printing improve congenital heart surgery 3D printing technique improves heart valve sizing 3D printing bolsters care for congenital heart disease Flexible 3D-printed heart replicates size, texture
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
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