What Causes Hyperpigmentation?
Discussion Skin color is primarily due to genetic factors. Melanocytes are usually found in skin in the basal layer of the epidermis which is also where the melanin usually lies. There are a range of normal skin phenotypes that have been described by Fitzpatrick and range from I-VI: I – pale white skin, blond hair, blue eyed, does not tan, always burns II – fair skin, blue eyed, tans poorly, burns easily III – darker white skin, burns initially then tans IV – light brown skin, tans easily, burns minimally V – brown skin, tans darkly easily, burns rarely VI – dark brown skin, always tans darkly, never burns Melanocytes in increased numbers, producing more melanin or in abnormal locations can cause hyperpigmentation. Here are some examples: Epidermal melanosis – increased melanin but normal number of melanocytes Cafe-au-lait spots Urticaria pigmentosa Dermal melanosis – melanin in the dermis Drug eruption Incontinentia pigmenti Lichen planus Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation Mixed – melanin in epidermis and dermis Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation Just like hypopigmentation (which can be reviewed here), hyperpigmentation can be worrisome for many families because of cosmesis and the worry that “something is wrong.” The normal natural changes in skin-tone over the year due to different light exposure and wide variations within individuals is not something that many people are aware of. Post-i...
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Conclusion: In conclusion, GASL1 was downregulated in CHF. GASL1 overexpression may improve CHF by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis through the inactivation of TGF-β1. PMID: 31223316 [PubMed - in process]
This study summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the sources, the anticancer mechanism, and the biosynthetic pathway of paclitaxel. With the advancement of biotechnology, improvements in endophytic fungal strains, and the use of recombination techniques and microbial fermentation engineering, the yield of extracted paclitaxel has increased significantly. Recently, paclitaxel has been found to play a large role in tumor immunity, and it has a great potential for use in many cancer treatments. PMID: 31223315 [PubMed - in process]
Authors: Baer HR, Thomas SP, Pan Z, Tagawa A, Carollo J, Heyn PC Abstract PURPOSE: To understand the relationship of walking speed to self-reported pain, fatigue, and physical function in adults with CP. METHODS: Design: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Accredited clinical motion analysis laboratory in a regional children's hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 72 ambulatory patients ⩾ 18 years of age, diagnosed with CP, who previously had ⩾ 1 prior instrumented gait analysis at our facility. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROMIS-57 pain interference/intensity, physical function, and fatigue measures and walking ...
Vitamin B12 performs a number of vital functions within the body. It plays an essential role in the development of DNA and red blood cells, for example. A vitamin B12 deficiency can cause serious health complications. Here are three ways to keep the vitamin topped up.
A judge called her decision “heartbreaking,” but in the best interest of the woman, who is 22 weeks pregnant.
Abstract A cluster of nine mesothelioma cases was observed among 341 registrants' deaths in the US Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Descriptive analysis showed that mesothelioma cases had the highest average cumulative external radiation dose compared with lung cancer, other cancer, and noncancer deaths. Further analysis indicated that the mesothelioma cluster was very different demographically from lung cancer, other cancer, and noncancer deaths. Therefore, an internally matched case-control approach was applied to evaluate the differences in an average cumulative external radiation dose between mesothelioma ...
Authors: Banach M, Robert J Abstract Cancers impose a significant health and economic burden. By harnessing the immune system, current immunotherapies have revolutionized the treatment against human cancers and potentially offer a long-term cure. Among others, innate-like T (iT) cells, including natural killer T cells, are promising candidates for immunotherapies. Unlike conventional T cells, iT cells regulate multiple immune processes and express an invariant T cell receptor that is shared among different individuals. However, the conditions that activate the pro- and antitumor functions of iT cells are partially ...
Conclusion: The concomitant use of nicotine and areca indicates that betel quid addiction includes a significant component of nicotine dependence. However, the additional activities of areca, including the muscarinic effects of arecoline, indicate that potential cessation therapies should optimally address other factors as well. PMID: 31220988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conclusions: Findings underscore the critical role of acculturation and alcohol-related problems in cannabis use frequency and have relevant implications for preventive efforts addressing cannabis use among Latinas at risk of an AEP. PMID: 31220980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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