Transient temperature fluctuations severely decrease P. falciparum susceptibility to artemisinin in vitro

We examined the impact of short pulses of low temperature on ring-stage susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin in vitro. The usually artemisinin-sensitive clone 3D7 exhibited substantially reduced ring-stage susceptibility to a 4-h pulse of 700 nM dihydro-artemisinin administered during a 5-h pulse of low temperature down to 17 °C. Parasite growth through the subsequent asexual cycle was not affected by the temperature pulse. Chloroquine and pyronaridine susceptibility, in a standard 48-h test, was not affected by brief exposures to low temperature. Fever-like temperature pulses up to 40 °C were also accompanied by enhanced ring-stage survival of 700 nM artemisinin pulses, but parasite growth was generally attenuated at this temperature. We discuss these findings in relation to the possible activation of parasite stress responses, including the unfolded protein response, by hypo- or hyper-thermic conditions. Physiological states may need to be considered in artemisinin-treated P. falciparum patients.Graphical abstractEffect of transient hypothermia on ring-stage artemisinin susceptibility of P. falciparum clone 3D7. Ring-stage survival (proportion of control) of DHA pulse-treated 3D7 parasites (black circles) transiently incubated at hypothermic and normothermic temperatures. Open circles represent RSA survival estimates, in our hands, for previously described Cambodian parasite lines Cam 3.11 (reduced DHA susceptibility) and Cam 3.11REV (fully...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

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We present a 20-year-old male patient who presented himself after a car accident, and was diagnosed with a rupture of traumatic hydatid cysts due to hives rash. In the operation, a scolicidal gent was administered to the cyst, the cyst wall was partially excised and the germinative membranes were removed. Medical treatment with albendazole was started. The postoperative period was quiet. The intraperitoneal traumatic rupture of a hydatid cyst is rare, but it can cause severe anaphylactic reactions and biliary peritonitis. Although a rare and broken hydatid cyst due to trauma may present with skin lesions in a patient in an...
Source: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia - Category: Surgery Tags: Ann Ital Chir Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Urology Case ReportsAuthor(s): Leila Haghighi, Mohsen Akbaribazm, Zahra Arab-Mazar, Mohsen RahimiAbstractHematobium species of this parasite tends to bladder and mesenteric arteries and it causes lesions in the bladder wall, urethra, and renal tubes. A 25-year-old man living in Tehran (a non-endemic and very rare area for schistosoma) suffers from symptoms such as hematuria with suprapubic pain, dysuria, fever, nausea and vomiting. Urine analysis showed a lot of red blood cells, after using cystoscopy of the area and receiving a bladder biopsy, a definitive diagnos...
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Abstract Parasitic diseases are a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. African trypanosomiasis, American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria and toxoplasmosis are the main parasitic infections caused by protozoan parasites with over one million deaths each year. Due to old medications and drug resistance worldwide, there is an urgent need for new antiparasitic drugs. 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles have been widely studied for medical applications. The chemical, physical and pharmacokinetic properties recommend 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring as a target in drug development. Many scienti...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharm Source Type: research
Condition:   Malaria,Falciparum Interventions:   Biological: PfSPZ Challenge;   Drug: Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine;   Drug: Piperaquine;   Drug: Artemether lumefantrine;   Drug: Primaquine Sponsors:   University of Oxford;   KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Collaborative Research Program;   Sanaria Inc.;   University Hospital Heidelberg;   Kenya Medical Research Institute Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
CONCLUSION: While external cooling during prolonged Zone 3 resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta appears to decrease ischemic muscle injury, this benefit appears to be time dependent. As the ischemic time approaches 8 hours, the benefit from hypothermia decreases. PMID: 32074339 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
This article will highlight the strategies used to move this critical antimalarial drug through the development pipeline. PMID: 32074317 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous parasitism in the healthy skin of humans with visceral leishmaniasis, although unusual, may be a source of infection for phlebotomine sandflies.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republi...
Source: BioScience Trends - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biosci Trends Source Type: research
[Nation] A malaria outbreak has left over 130 people seeking treatment in Bomet County in the last four days, according to local health officials.
Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
This study was aimed at evaluating the antimalarial effect of leaf latex and isolates obtained from Aloe megalacantha against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain in Swiss albino mice. Peters' 4-day suppressive test method was used to test the antimalarial activity of both leaves latex and isolates. Three isolates were obtained using thin layer chromatography and were coded as AM1, AM2, and AM3 in ascending order of their retention factor. After treatment of Plasmodium berghei infected mice with leaf latex of Aloe megalacantha for four days at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, it shows 30.3%, 43.4%, and 56.4%...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
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