Subjecthood and linear order in linguistic encoding: Evidence from the real-time production of wh-questions in English and Mandarin Chinese
Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 105Author(s): Monica L. Do, Elsi KaiserAbstractWe use visual world eye-tracking to provide a first look into the real-time production of an under-researched but communicatively crucial construction – wh-questions. We investigate whether the transition from abstract message to highly-structured utterances (linguistic encoding) is driven by linear order (positional processing) or subjecthood assignment (functional processing). Experiment 1 decouples positional and functional processes by comparing production of English declaratives versus object wh-questions (‘Which nurses did the maids tickle?’). Experiment 2 compares the production of declaratives versus object wh-questions in Mandarin Chinese to investigate potential information-focus effects on linguistic encoding and tests whether Experiment 1’s findings could be due to focus. Experiment 1 found that even though the articulation of a sentence is necessarily linear, speakers do not necessarily encode sentences in accordance with the linear order in which the words are uttered. Experiment 2 suggests that information-focus does not guide speakers' eye-movements during linguistic encoding.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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