Host-Specific Expression of Ixodes scapularis Salivary Genes

Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Sukanya Narasimhan, Carmen J. Booth, Kathleen DePonte, Ming-Ji Wu, Xianping Liang, Subhasis Mohanty, Fred Kantor, Erol FikrigAbstractIxodes scapularis vectors several pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. Nymphal and larval stages, and the pathogens transmitted by I. scapularis are maintained in a zoonotic cycle involving rodent reservoir hosts, predominantly Peromyscus leucopus. Humans are not reservoir hosts, however, accidental encounters of infected ticks with humans, results in pathogen transmission to the human host. Laboratory models of non-reservoir hosts such as guinea pigs develop a strong immune response to tick salivary proteins and reject ticks upon repeated tick infestations. Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that humans that get frequent tick bites might also develop resistance to ticks. Mus musculus, the laboratory model of natural host, does not develop resistance to I. scapularis upon repeated tick infestations. Addressing this dichotomy in vector-host interaction, we present data that suggest that the salivary transcriptome and proteome composition is different in mouse and guinea pig-fed I. scapularis, and that these differences might contribute to differences in host immune responses. These findings reveal a new insight into vector-host interactions and offer a functional paradigm to better understand the phenomenon of ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Ellie L. Milnes, Grace Thornton, Alexandre N. Léveillé, Pauline Delnatte, John R. Barta, Dale A. Smith, Nicole NemethAbstractCervid babesiosis, caused by the protozoan hemoparasite Babesia odocoilei and transmitted by the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis, is an emerging disease of Canadian cervids. This pathogen has not yet been described in humans. Data are lacking on the role of migratory birds in the adventitious spread of Ba. odocoilei-infected ticks, as well as on the infection status of I. scapularis in ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
The objectives of this study were to investigate the geographic distribution and magnitude of tick infestations in opportunistically sampled mammalian wildlife and companion animals (i.e., dogs) in southern Ontario and to test these ticks for evidence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. Ticks collected from wildlife carcasses, live-trapped wildlife and companion animals (2015-2016), as well as wildlife diagnostic cases (2011-2013), were identified to species and life stage. Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu st...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
In this study, bird species migrating through Bulgaria were investigated as carriers of zoonotic pathogens. In total, 706 birds belonging to 46 species were checked for the presence of various bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Yersin ia, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Brucella spp.). From 673 birds we investigated fecal samples, from the remaining 33, blood samples. We detected Campylobacter 16S rDNA gene in 1.3% of birds, but no ne were of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species. Escherichia coli 1...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
ka Minichová Markéta Derdáková In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector of tick-borne zoonotic bacteria. It transmits spirochaetes from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. Although spatial differences in the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens have been intensively studied, seasonal (within-year) fluctuations in the prevalence of these pathogens within sites are often overlooked. We analyzed the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus in an urban forest in Bratislava, Slovakia. Furthemore, we examined temporal t...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Lyme disease is the most frequently reported zoonotic tick-borne disease worldwide, and the number of infected humans is increasing. Lyme disease (or Lyme borreliosis) is an affection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, sensu lato. Lyme disease is also reported as a variety of misleading clinical symptomatologies. Infected patient ’s blood serology is the most currently test used for its diagnosis. However, serology has a low sensitivity, which ranges from 34 % to 70%.Thus, there are numerous subsequent false-negative diagnoses despite an active clinical infection profile.
Source: Medical Hypotheses - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Lyme disease is the most frequently reported zoonotic tick-borne disease worldwide, and the number of infected humans is increasing. Lyme disease (or Lyme borreliosis) is an affection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, sensu lato. Lyme disease is also reported as a variety of misleading clinical symptomatologies. Infected patient ’s blood serology is the most currently test used for its diagnosis. However, serology has a low sensitivity, which ranges from 34% to 70%.Thus, there are numerous subsequent false-negative diagnoses despite an active clinical infection profile.
Source: Medical Hypotheses - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
We present case studies on the role of rodents in the cycles of Bartonella spp., of wild ungulates in the cycle of Babesia spp., and of various wildlife species in the life cycle of Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. These examples highlight the usefulness of surveillance strategies focused on neglected zoonotic agents in wildlife as a source of valuable information for health professionals, nature managers and (local) decision-makers. These benefits could be further enhanced by increased collaboration between researchers and stakeholders across Europe and a more harmonised and coordinated a...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Artem Rogovskyy, Maliha Batool, David C. Gillis, Patricia J. Holman, Igor V. Nebogatkin, Yuliya V. Rogovska, Maksym S. Rogovskyy Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. LB is the most prevalent vector-borne illness in Ukraine, but current data on the prevalence of LB pathogens in their tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, are lacking. I. ricinus ticks may also carry Borrelia miyamotoi, an emerging relapsing fever group spirochete that has been implicated in human ill...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated two mouse models - the C3H/N and Balb/c strains for susceptibility to infection and ability to transmit the pathogens via tick vector and to reveal the potential interactions between various bacterial tick-borne agents. Our results indicated that the C3H/N and Balb/c mice are well-accepted models of B. afzelii infection. However, they are not suitable for interaction studies with R. helvetica since the animals did not acquire rickettsiemia and do not transmit Rickettsia sp. to feeding ticks. PMID: 28854805 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results of detection and attribution studies can inform evidence-based risk management to reduce current, and plan for future, changes in health risks associated with climate change. Gaining a better understanding of the size, timing, and distribution of the climate change burden of disease and injury requires reliable long-term data sets, more knowledge about the factors that confound and modify the effects of climate on health, and refinement of analytic techniques for detection and attribution. At the same time, significant advances are possible in the absence of complete data and statistical certainty:...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
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