Chapter Seven - Imaging Transplantation in Movement Disorders

Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Edoardo Rosario de Natale, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Marios PolitisAbstractCell replacement therapy with graft transplantation has been tested as a disease-modifying treatment in neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the damage of a predominant cell type, such as substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) or striatal medium spiny projection neurons in Huntington's disease (HD). The results of these trials are mixed with success in preclinical and pilot open-label trials, which were not consistently reproduced in randomized controlled trials. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) molecular imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging allow the graft survival, and its relationship with the host tissues to be studied in vivo. In PD, PET with [18F]DOPA showed that graft survival does not necessarily correlate with the clinical improvement and PD patients with worse outcome had lower binding in the ventral striatum and a high serotonin ([11C]DASB PET) to dopamine ([18F]DOPA PET) ratio in the grafted neurons. In HD, PET with [11C]PK11195 showed the graft survival and the clinical responses may be related to the reactive activation of the host inflammatory/immune system. Findings from these studies have been used to refine study protocols and patient selection in current clinical trials, which includes id...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell. A herd of these bacteria-like organelles in every cell manufacture the chemical energy store molecules that are used to power cellular processes. Mitochondrial function declines with age throughout the body. Evidence suggests that this is due to changes in mitochondrial dynamics that inhibit the quality control mechanisms of mitophagy that are responsible for recycling worn and damaged mitochondria. This loss of miochondrial function is well known to contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative conditions, as the brain is an energy-hungry organ, making this an important ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
ino A Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people around the world. Several studies point out caspase-3 as a key player in the development and progression of neurological disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Furthermore, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in neurodegenerative pathologies leading to neuronal damage and cell death. Pharmacological properties of nitrones such as free radical trapping and neuroprotection has been previously described. In the present work, we have assessed ten non-cyt...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract The global burden of neurodegenerative diseases is alarmingly increasing in parallel to the aging of population. Although the molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration are not completely understood, excitotoxicity, defined as to the injury and death of neurons due to an excessive or prolonged exposure to excitatory amino acids, has been shown to play a pivotal role. The increased release and/or decreased uptake of glutamate results in a dysregulation of neuronal calcium homeostasis, leading to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, disturbances in protein turn-over and neuroinflammation. De...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Transplant of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue into the striatum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has been performed to increase dopamine production and stimulate neuronal regeneration. Analysis of fetal graft tissue at autopsy has demonstrated 6 cases of α-synuclein pathology in PD patients, one case with both α-synuclein and tau pathology in a PD patient, and two cases of tau pathology within a Huntington's Disease patient.
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Short communication Source Type: research
Abstract This review presents the potential effects of dietary antioxidants on neurodegenerative diseases. The relationship of autoimmunity and antioxidants, as well as their preventive effect on neurodegenerative diseases are evaluated. The driven factors of neurodegeneration and the potential effects of natural antioxidants are summarized for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, spongiform encephalopathy, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The effect of oxidative stress on neurodegenerative diseases and regulative effect of antioxidants on oxidative balance is...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Existing in vitro and in vivo data are promising, and highlight that naturally-occurring autophagy-regulating compounds play an important role for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 31914904 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 03 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41582-019-0294-xSex-based differences in demographics, clinical features and therapeutic response are emerging in a range of neurological diseases, including movement disorders. The authors review current knowledge of sex-related differences in Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, Huntington disease and chronic tic disorders.
Source: Nature Reviews Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Chayasirisobhon S Abstract Cannabis plant has the scientific name called Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis plant has many species, but there are three main species including Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Over 70 compounds isolated from cannabis species are called cannabinoids (CBN). Cannabinoids produce over 100 naturally occurring chemicals. The most abundant chemicals are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). THC is psychotropic chemical that makes people feel "high" while CBD is nonpsychotropic chemical. However, cannabinoid chemicals are not found only...
Source: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica - Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Neurol Taiwan Source Type: research
Authors: Subramaniam S Abstract A major unresolved problem in neurodegenerative disease is why and how a specific set of neurons in the brain are highly vulnerable to neuronal death. Multiple pathways and mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD), yet how they contribute to neuronal vulnerability remains far from clear. In this review, various mechanisms ascribed in AD, PD, ALS, and HD will be briefly summarized. Particular focus will be placed on Rhes-mediated intercellular transport of the HD pro...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research
AbstractMicroglia are the primary innate immune system cells in the central nervous system (CNS). They are crucial for the immunity, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, neurotrophic support, phagocytosis of cellular debris, and maintaining the CNS integrity and homeostasis. Invasion by pathogens as well as in CNS injuries and damages results in activation of microglia known as microgliosis. The activated microglia have the capacity to release proinflammatory mediators leading to neuroinflammation. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation can give rise to various neurological disorders (NDs), especially the neurodegenerative disea...
Source: BioFactors - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
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