Optimization of a table-top x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) system.

Optimization of a table-top x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) system. Phys Med Biol. 2018 Nov 26;63(23):235013 Authors: Dunning CAS, Bazalova-Carter M Abstract Pencil beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) has typically used a single spectrometer and prohibitively long scan times. However, detecting backscattered fluorescent x-rays from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using multiple spectrometers greatly reduces image noise and scan time. The arrangement of eight spectrometers for combined K-shell and L-shell XFCT was investigated along with a variety of conditions. A 2.5 cm-diameter cylindrical water phantom containing 4 mm-diameter vials with 0.1%-2% AuNP concentrations by weight was modeled by TOPAS, a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo software. The phantom was irradiated to 30 mGy by a 0.5 mm Pb-filtered 120 kVp and 1 mm Al-filtered 30 kVp 1 mm2 x-ray pencil beam to yield respective Au K-shell and L-shell fluorescent x-rays, with 50 0.5 mm translation and 2-degree rotation steps. Eight CdTe and silicon drift detector (SDD) spectrometers were placed 2.25 cm away from the isocentre. The respective energy resolution was applied to the detected energy spectra and the spectra were corrected for detector response before extracting the fluorescence signal. Three CdTe and SDD spectrometer configurations (isotropic/backscattered grid/backscattered row arrangements), two CdTe crystal sizes (9 mm2/25 mm...
Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research

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In this study, we present two cases of calyceal diverticula and discuss their clinical characteristics and radiologic features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the presented two cases, we applied several imaging examinations, including delayed intravenous pyelography, retrograde pyelography and axial computerized tomographic (CT) scanning of the kidneys with and without contrast. Serum creatinine levels in fluid withdrawn from the diverticula were found to be significantly higher than the simultaneous serum creatinine levels. Intravenous injection of methylene blue through a ureteral catheter was also aided in the diagnosis. ...
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Tags: J Xray Sci Technol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the associations between CT imaging radiomics features and NSCLC co-expressed gene sets. The findings suggest that CT radiomics features can reflect important biological information of NSCLC patients, which may have a significant clinical impact as CT is routinely used in clinical practice, assisting in improving medical decision-support at low cost. PMID: 31450540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Tags: J Xray Sci Technol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: OSC-TV was shown to improve image quality compared to FDK and FDK-TV. Moreover, this iterative approach allowed for significant dose reduction while maintaining image quality. PMID: 31450539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Tags: J Xray Sci Technol Source Type: research
When FDG-PET/CT scans reveal lingering metabolic activity in the lungs of tuberculosis...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: 2 new PET tracers may best FDG in cancer imaging Later PET/CT follow-up helps for oropharyngeal cancer PET shows efficacy of tuberculosis meningitis drug PET/CT key to NIH's tuberculosis research plan Can AI accurately diagnose tuberculosis from chest x-rays?
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
AbstractPurposeThe Spinal Cord Society constituted a panel tasked with reviewing the literature on the radiological evaluation of spinal trauma with or without spinal cord injury and recommend a protocol. This position statement provides recommendations for the use of each modality, i.e., radiographs (X-rays), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as vascular imaging, and makes suggestions on identifying or clearing spinal injury in trauma patients.MethodsPubMed was searched for the corresponding keywords from January 1, 1980, to August 1, 2017. A MEDLINE search was subsequently undertaken aft...
Source: European Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The presented algorithm can achieve image quality superior to that of the MLEM and MLEM-TV approaches in terms of the preservation of fine structure and the suppression of undesired artifacts and noise, indicating its useful potential for low-sampled data in PET imaging. PMID: 31381539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Tags: J Xray Sci Technol Source Type: research
ConclusionA careful assessment with high clinical suspicion along with CT Scan is the best way to diagnose extra pericardial tamponade cause by sternal fracture.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed mecanum iCT system achieved the improved flexible mobility and has potential to better serve as a useful imaging tool in the clinical intraoperative setting. PMID: 31356225 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Tags: J Xray Sci Technol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Semi-empirical linearization of X-ray projection data with custom calibration phantoms allows accurate measurements to be obtained on the radiodense samples after applying the proposed correction method on biomedical micro-CT images. PMID: 31356224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Tags: J Xray Sci Technol Source Type: research
ConclusionLimy bile is a rare clinical entity of unknown etiology but obstruction of the cystic duct may be the most important step in its occurrence. The condition needs cholecystectomy as in most of the cases it is associated with gall stones. There are no reported long term sequelae and long term follows up is not recommended.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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