Paediatric and adult bronchiectasis: Vaccination in prevention and management
ABSTRACTBronchiectasis has received increased attention recently, including an emphasis on preventing infective exacerbations that are associated with disease progression and lung function decline. While there are several bacteria and viruses associated with bronchiectasis, licensed vaccines are only currently available forStreptococcus pneumoniae,Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae protein D as a conjugate in a pneumococcal vaccine),Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. The evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of these vaccines in both preventing and managing bronchiectasis in children and adults is limited with the focus of most research being on other chronic lung disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, asthma and cystic fibrosis. We review the existing evidence for these vaccines in bronchiectasis and highlight the existing gaps in knowledge. High ‐quality experimental and non‐experimental studies using current state‐of‐the‐art microbiological methods and validated, standardised case definitions are needed across the depth and breadth of the vaccine development pathway.
Authors: Thomas PG, Shubina M, Balachandran S Abstract Influenza A viruses (IAV) are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family of negative-sense RNA viruses. The greatest diversity of IAV strains is found in aquatic birds, but a subset of strains infects other avian as well as mammalian species, including humans. In aquatic birds, infection is largely restricted to the gastrointestinal tract and spread is through feces, while in humans and other mammals, respiratory epithelial cells are the primary sites supporting productive replication and transmission. IAV triggers the death of most cell types in which it replicate...
At least three Bay Area companies say they could jumpstart programs to find treatments or vaccines for the respiratory infection that has swept part of China and crept into two people in the United States.
Although rates of cervical cancer in the United States have been declining due to vaccination and screening efforts, it remains the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and is still far from being eradicated, even in developed nations. This review discusses recent developments in cervical cancer treatment and reviews the literature supporting recent practice changes encompassing staging, surgical management, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted agents including immunotherapy, and imaging.
The role of the immune system in the development of cancer has been a subject of ongoing clinical investigation in recent years. Emerging data demonstrate that tumorigenesis resulting in ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancers is a consequence of impaired host immune responses to cancerous cells. Leveraging the immune system through the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, therapeutic vaccine therapy, and adoptive cell transfer presents a profound opportunity to revolutionize cancer treatment. This review will encompass the role of the immune system in development of gynecologic cancers and highlight recent data regarding i...
Trikafta, a combination of elexacaftor, ivacaftor, and tezacaftor, is a new drug for the treatment of the most common cystic fibrosis mutation.Serious adverse effects include elevated liver enzymes and an increased risk of cataracts.
Crohn ’s disease (CD) is an uncommon disease in Thai population, leading to delay in diagnosis due to lacking of familiarity, which may increase disease complications. One of the most problematic issues is to differentiate CD from intestinal tuberculosis (ITB), and many scoring systems have been introdu ced since 2006. However, competency of diagnosis of CD in the latter period is still unknown in Thailand. Our aim is to compare this competency in the period of 2000-2006, 2007-2012, and 2013-2018.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk of infections due to the immunosuppressive drugs used for its treatment and by the virtue of the disease itself. The risk of infection is further exacerbated by decreased host response to vaccines.
Biological agents have revolutionized the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is a known increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation with biologic therapy (1). ACG guidelines recommend screening for active and latent TB infection (LTBI) prior to starting certain biologic agents (2). However, there are no consensus guideline on the utility of yearly screening testing in IBD patients without TB risk factors. With a number of patients now receiving the biologic therapy outside their primary care centers it has become increasingly difficult to effectively provide ongoing TB screening.
Evidence suggests that the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients may have an elevated risk of Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers when compared with those without IBD. HPV vaccination has been recommended for 11 to 26 years old males and females. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has updated the guideline to include adults aged 27 to 45 who are not adequately vaccinated. To the best of our knowledge, population-level HPV vaccine uptake rates among patients with IBD remains unknown.
Contributors : John S Tregoning ; January Weiner 3rdSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Mus musculusVaccination in pregnancy is an effective tool to protect both the mother and infant. Vaccines against tetanus, pertussis and influenza are recommended for use in pregnancy and new vaccines with specific indications for pregnancy are in the clinical trials pipeline. However our understanding of the immune response to vaccination in pregnancy is incomplete. We compared the effect of pregnancy on early (24 hours) transcriptional responses to vaccination. Pregnant mice and women were immunised with Boostrix-IPV...
More News: Asthma | Child Development | Children | Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary | Cystic Fibrosis | Haemophilus Influenzae (Hib) | Influenza | Influenza Vaccine | Meningitis Vaccine | Microbiology | Pediatrics | Pneomococcal Vaccine | Respiratory Medicine | Study | Tuberculosis | Vaccines | Whooping Cough | Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Vaccine