Importance of sample volume to the measurement and interpretation of plasma osmolality

ConclusionsThese results demonstrate that Posm measured by freezing point depression will be ~7  mmol/kg higher when using 20 μL vs 250 μL sample volumes. Approximately half of this effect may be due to plasma proteins. Posm sample volume should be carefully considered when calculating the osmole gap or assessing hydration status.
Source: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Social support was identified as an important variable for older adults with chronic illness who lived alone. Interventions that include social support hold the potential to reduce depression and suicidal ideation in this population.
Source: Journal of Nursing Research - Category: Nursing Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
Background: In South Korea, population aging is advancing at a more rapid rate in rural areas than urban areas, leading to a particularly high percentage of rural-dwelling older adults. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine and compare health promoting behaviors, depression, and life satisfaction between rural-dwelling older adults who live, respectively, in group homes and at home. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was employed. Study participants included 160 older adults aged 65 years and older who were living in group homes (n = 80) and at home (n = 80) in Gyeonggi province, South Kore...
Source: Journal of Nursing Research - Category: Nursing Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
Conclusions/Implications for Practice: People who sleep poorly should avoid misusing alcohol to self-treat poor sleep quality or anxiety and should instead utilize sleep hygiene education and mental healthcare. Daily alcohol consumption may be a moderator between anxiety status and sleep quality.
Source: Journal of Nursing Research - Category: Nursing Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
In conclusion, there were no significant differences in the efficacies of QUEIR600, QUEIR300, and QUEXR300 in treating bipolar depression; moreover, tolerance to QUEIR600 might be worse than the other treatments.
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study explores responses to ketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) using a wearable forehead electroencephalography (EEG) device. We recruited and randomly assigned 55 outpatients with TRD into three approximately equal-sized groups (A: 0.5-mg/kg ketamine; B: 0.2-mg/kg ketamine; and C: normal saline) under double-blind conditions. The ketamine responses were measured by EEG signals and Hamilton depression rating scale scores. At baseline, the responders showed significantly weaker EEG theta power than the non-responders (p
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Growing evidence implicates altered mTORC1 signaling cascades in the pathophysiology of depression, suggesting that direct modulation of mTORC1 signaling may offer novel therapeutic potential. In this issue of the JCI, Kato and colleagues reported that administration of NV-5138, a recently developed synthetic leucine analog, has a rapid and sustained antidepressant action in rat models via activation of mTORC1 signaling. The investigators also found that the antidepressant effect of NV-5138 is mediated by upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling and that NV-5138 treatment produces rapid synaptic r...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Less imitation and poorer perspective taking indicate a cognitive self-bias when faced with conflicting self- and other-representations. This suggests that impaired self-other distinction, and an associated subcortical pattern of GM atrophy, might underlie the socio-cognitive disturbances observed in MS.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Objective Stable angina pectoris (SAP) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and blood stasis syndrome (BSS) is a potentially serious threat to public health. NF-κB signaling is associated with angina pectoris. 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), which is a unique polyhydroxy alkaloid, is the main active component in mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves and may exhibit protective properties in the prevention of SAP in patients with CHD by affecting the NF-κB pathway. Methods DNJ was purified from mulberry leaves by using a pretreated cation exchange chromatography column. A total of 144 SAP patients were randoml...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Depression is an incapacitating neuropsychiatric disorder. The serotonergic system in the brain plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. However, due to the often delayed and/or poor performance of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treating depressive symptoms, the serotonergic system’s role in depression has recently been questioned further. Evidence from recent studies has suggested that increased inflammation and oxidative stress may play significant roles in the pathophysiology of depression. The consequences of these factors can lead to the neuroprogression of depression, which incl...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Patients are still not being warned how difficult it can be to come off antidepressants, say psychiatrists campaigning for a reduction in the needless use of the drugs.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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