After almost two months of screaming newspaper headlines and wall-to-wall cable television coverage about the Ebola outbreak, a calm descended over the media in late October. On Oct. 30, the Washington Post's front page carried the headline, "New Cases of Ebola Declining, WHO Says." The next day, the same real estate carried stories about the war in Syria and the CEO of Apple, Inc. Over the same two days, Ebola was nowhere to be found on the front page of the New York Times. It was 23 days after the death of Thomas Eric Duncan, the first and only confirmed Ebola fatality in the United States. Barring another victim arriving on U.S. shores, this slowdown in Ebola stories could be the start of a downward slope often seen in coverage of new, scary viral outbreaks. Coverage of epidemics often tracks well initially with the number of reported cases, with media attention waning in the aftermath of the initial outbreak. But these spikes stand in stark contrast to how the media covers chronic diseases and other health problems with huge human and economic costs to society. Despite far-reaching effects, these stories rarely find the media spotlight. This trend is borne out in a recent analysis undertook by the Wilson Center, which looked at more than a decade of reporting on diseases -- from HIV to tuberculosis and diabetes -- in the Post and the Times. For example, influenza saw Ebola-like spikes in coverage in 2006 and 2009, fueled by outbreaks of "bird flu" ...
This article is the first systematic review of the effects of biosynthesized nanoparticles on both malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and relevant vectors.Graphical Abstract
In this study, aqueous suspensions of various active ingredients (A.I.s) were utilized to generate Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS) nano-sanitizers, containing the A.I. utilized to produced them (termed iEWNS). These iEWNS had nanoscale size, were loaded with ROS and contained the A.I. utilized to produce them. They were challenged with Influenza H1N1/PR/8 and Acinetobacter baumannii on surfaces and in air. The results indicate that a nanogram dose of A.I. is effective in producing significant inactivation in Influenza H1N1/PR/8 and Acinetobacter baumannii.
Peripheral neuropathies are the most frequent neurological complications associated with HIV, within which HIV sensory neuropathy (SN) is the most common form, which affects 30-50% of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. HIV SN is frequently manifested with hard-to-manage pain and is often under-diagnosed and/or under-treated. Tat, trans-activator of transcription, is a key activator of HIV transcription. Despite that recent studies have highlighted the role of HIV Tat in the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), the involvement of HIV Tat in neuropathic pain associated with...
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is an intractable complication of diabetes that affects 25% of patients. PDN is characterized by neuropathic pain and small-fiber degeneration, accompanied by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) nociceptor hyperexcitability and loss of their axons within the skin. The molecular mechanisms underlying DRG nociceptor hyperexcitability and small-fiber degeneration in PDN are unknown. To delineate the molecular mechanisms behind nociceptor hyperexcitability and small-fiber degeneration, it becomes important to uniquely identify changes in the nociceptor population from within the heterogeneous populatio...
Considering the opioid epidemic, safe alternatives to opioids for pain management is paramount. Effective non-pharmacological management of chronic pain requires individuals to initiate and maintain healthy behavior changes over time. To facilitate behavioral change, an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action underlying the intervention is required. Supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund, the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program seeks to make behavior change research more impactful, targeted, and systematic by promoting a common, mechanism-focused, experimental medicine approac...
Pain is a tremendous health care burden associated with prediabetes and diabetes. However, not everyone with prediabetes or diabetes develops pain and the factors that increase susceptibility to painful neuropathy remain elusive. The epidermis is innervated by both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic axons and our studies in mice reveal that mechanical allodynia induced by consuming a high fat diet increases peptidergic epidermal axons. We hypothesize that patients with prediabetes and painful neuropathy have an abnormal proportion of epidermal peptidergic axons.
Opioid misuse, particularly among those with chronic pain, constitutes a significant public health problem and is associated with a host of negative outcomes. Despite efforts to curb this increasing epidemic, opioids remain the most widely prescribed class of medications. Prescription opioids are often used to treat chronic pain despite the risks associated with use, and chronic pain remains an important factor in understanding this epidemic. Cannabis is another substance that has recently garnered attention in the chronic pain literature, as increasing numbers of individuals use cannabis to manage chronic pain.
The current study assessed associations of clinical characteristics and all-cause mortality among a cohort of Veterans initiating pain services. Analyses were also stratified by age to examine potential variations. Demographic (male, age), medical comorbidities (diabetes, myocardial infarction, chronic pulmonary conditions, cancer, renal disease, liver disease), pain characteristics (pain intensity, opioid analgesic prescription), and mental health characteristics (depression, opioid use disorder, opioid poisoning/suicide attempts) were extracted from Veterans Health Administration records.
The widespread misuse and abuse of prescribed opioid pain relievers amongst chronic pain patients is a central contributor to the opioid epidemic. The current study aimed to identify potential risk factors and treatment targets that may reduce and prevent opioid misuse. The NIH's Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-Abuse of Prescription Medication item bank (Rx-Abuse) was validated in both community and clinical samples to assess self-reported severity of medication abuse.
The experience of pain is different for everyone and there is considerable variability regarding pain perceptions. The recent opioid epidemic is a major source of stress for patients and clinicians alike. There is a significant need for comprehensive pain assessment and nonpharmacological treatments for pain. However, research suggests that nurses experience barriers related to the assessment and treatment of patients ’ pain. Such barriers may include not having enough time to work with patients, subjective pain assessments, medication-seeking behaviors, and lack of support from treating physicians.
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