An epidemiological survey of bovine viral diarrhea infection in calves in Egypt with identification of high prevalence of persistent infected animals

AbstractIn the present study, we identified the persistent infection by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in 45 clinically suspected persistent infected (PI) calves and 260 apparently healthy calves from Damietta governorate (North) in Egypt during 2016 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum neutralization test (SNT), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The identification of PI calves was performed after vaccination by CattleMaster ® 4. The age of PI calves in the current study was ranged from 2 to 4 months (n = 7) and from 5 to 8 months (n = 38). ELISA revealed the infection in 4 clinically suspected PI calves (57.14%) aged 2 to 4 months. While the infection did not approve in any of the calves within this age using RT-PCR, for calves aged from 5 to 8 months old, ELISA showed the infection in 30 calves (78.94%), and from these c alves, the infection was confirmed in 6 calves (15.79%) only using RT-PCR. For apparently clinically healthy animals, 11 transiently infected calves were identified by IHC (positive), SNT (positive), and RT-PCR (negative) at 2 months’ post-vaccination. Collectively, the persistent infection was c onfirmed in 9 calves (2.95%) out of 305 calves. In summary, our study detected a high prevalence of PI calves with BVDV in Damietta province in Egypt, which highlights the importance of introducing effective prevention and control...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research

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In this study, we compared the immunological efficacy of the vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice in terms of the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. The results show that the rabies virus vector-based vaccine can induce remarkably earlier antibody response and higher levels of cellular immunity than the GEM particles vector. However, the GEM particles vector-based vaccine candidate can induce remarkably higher antibody response, even at a very low dose of 1 µg. These results indicate that vaccines constructed using different vaccine vector platforms for the same pathogen have different rates and trends...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
This study provides strong evidence that following a healthy lifestyle can substantially extend the years a person lives disease-free." Commentary on Recent Evidence for Cognitive Decline to Precede Amyloid Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/01/commentary-on-recent-evidence-for-cognitive-decline-to-precede-amyloid-aggregation-in-alzheimers-disease/ I can't say that I think the data presented in the research noted here merits quite the degree of the attention that it has been given in the popular science press. It is interesting, but not compelling if its role...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Date: Friday, 01 24, 2020; Speaker: Diane L. Bolton, Ph.D., Chief, Animal Models&Pathogenesis Section, US Military HIV Research Program; 33; 1N09
Source: NIH Calendar of Events - Category: American Health Source Type: events
Publication date: March 2020Source: Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 242Author(s): Chuangang Liu, Jianglong Li, Qili Yao, Zhisong Gao, Yanqing Cheng, Meiling Zhou, Yajie Tang, Leqiang Sun, Jinxia Dai, Gang Cao, Xiao-Lian Zhang, Ran ZhangAbstractRabies is a highly lethal infectious zoonosis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and the mortality rate is almost 100 % once clinical symptoms appear, which poses a huge threat to public health security across the many parts of the word. Vaccination is reported to be the most effective approach to prevent the disease. G protein is the only protein present on the surface of RABV, it also ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract The guinea pig model of tuberculosis is used extensively to assess the efficacy of novel tuberculosis vaccines. There are established parameters to determine vaccine efficacy in this model, but the science community currently lacks established biomarkers for early detection and monitoring of experimental disease in guinea pigs. To define a set of biomarkers that could be used as benchmarks for disease progression and early endpoint criteria, we assessed serum biochemical and hematology parameters in 2 groups of guinea pigs-one vaccinated with the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine strain (BCG) and one...
Source: Comparative Medicine - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research
Flu season is always unpredictable. Different viral strains circulate each year, which makes forecasting the disease’s spread—and formulating the annual flu vaccine—an educated guessing game. Even so, the 2019-2020 flu season has been particularly unusual. Influenza B, the viral strain that usually circulates toward the end of flu season, instead emerged first this year, shifting usual transmission patterns. A vaccine mismatch and reduced immunity to influenza B may have contributed to the early and severe start of this flu season. What does that mean for the months ahead? TIME asked Lynnette Brammer, an ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2020Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Gerard Kian-Meng Goh, A. Keith Dunker, James A. Foster, Vladimir N. UverskyAbstractThe Nipah Virus (NiV) was first isolated during a 1998–9 outbreak in Malaysia. The outbreak initially infected farm pigs and then moved to humans from pigs with a case-fatality rate (CFR) of about 40%. After 2001, regular outbreaks occurred with higher CFRs (∼71%, 2001–5, ∼93%, 2008–12). The spread arose from drinking virus-laden palm date sap and human-to-human transmission. Intrinsic disorder analysis revealed strong correla...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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