Epigenetics of bone diseases

Publication date: December 2018Source: Joint Bone Spine, Volume 85, Issue 6Author(s): Laetitia MichouAbstractHistone deacetylation, DNA methylation, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are the three main epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. All the physiological processes involved in bone remodeling are tightly regulated by epigenetic factors. This review discusses the main epigenetic modifications seen in tumoral and non-tumoral bone diseases, with emphasis on miRNAs. The role for epigenetic modifications of gene expression in the most common bone diseases is illustrated by drawing on the latest publications in the field. In multifactorial bone diseases such as osteoporosis, many epigenetic biomarkers, either alone or in combination, have been associated with bone mineral density or suggested to predict osteoporotic fractures. In addition, treatments designed to modulate bone remodeling by selectively targeting the function of specific miRNAs are being evaluated. Advances in the understanding of epigenetic regulation shed new light on the pathophysiology of other non-tumoral bone diseases, including genetic conditions inherited on a Mendelian basis. Finally, in the area of primary and metastatic bone tumors, the last few years have witnessed considerable progress in elucidating the epigenetic regulation of oncogenesis and its local interactions with bone tissue. These new data may allow the development of epigenetic outcome predictors, which are in very high demand, and ...
Source: Joint Bone Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Prescriptions for osteoporosis medications for persons with a SCI declined in recent years. The strongest predictors for having filled these prescriptions were having had a DXA or a prevalent fracture. PMID: 30888309 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yier Xu, Jian Guan, Jianyu Xu, Shuilin Chen, Guicai SunAbstractAimsThe present study aims to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of Z-Guggulsterone (Z-GS), an active component from myrrh, on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO).Main methodsGIO rats were used to simulate osteoporosis in vivo while MC3T3-E1 cells were induced to osteoblast differentiation and treated with dexamethasone to simulate osteoporosis in vitro. The rats and cells were treated with Z-GS according to the protocol. The bone mineral density, biome...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Authors: Atik OŞ PMID: 30885101 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eklem Hastaliklari ve Cerrahisi - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Eklem Hastalik Cerrahisi Source Type: research
ConclusionPrevalence of Vitamin D deficiency is very high in patients with hip fragility (proximal femur) fractures with secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis commonly associated. These fractures in our part of the world, occur at a younger age group as compared to Western population. Majority of the patients sustain in-house fractures.
Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Objectives: To investigate the biomechanical competence of locked plating augmented with supplemental intramedullary graft in comparison to conventional locked plate fixation in proximal humerus fractures (PHF). Methods: Complex four-part PHFs were set in 30 artificial humeri assigned to 3 study groups (n = 10 in each group). Group 1 was characterized by loss of medial support, group 2 by simulated severe cancellous bone damage due to osteoporosis, and group 3 by combination of the 2 features. After locked plating, each specimen underwent nondestructive quasi-static mechanical testing in 25 degrees lateral angulation ...
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Are individuals with cataract at higher risks of osteoporosis and fracture than those without?Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Internal Medicine Journal Article Source Type: news
Abstract Osteoporosis is a "skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture" which, in light of demographic change, is becoming an increasing burden on health care worldwide. Increasing age and female gender are associated with the condition, although a wider range of clinical risk factors are being used increasingly to identify those at risk of osteoporosis and its most important sequelae, fracture.While osteoporosis and fracture have long been associated with women in the post-menopausal age, fracture incidence increases because of the...
Source: Sub-Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Subcell Biochem Source Type: research
Abstract We begin this chapter by describing normal characteristics of several pertinent connective tissue components, and some of the basic changes they undergo with ageing. These alterations are not necessarily tied to any specific disease or disorders, but rather an essential part of the normal ageing process. The general features of age-induced changes, such as skin wrinkles, in selected organs with high content of connective or soft tissues are discussed in the next part of the chapter. This is followed by a section dealing with age-related changes in specific diseases that fall into at least two categories. ...
Source: Sub-Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Subcell Biochem Source Type: research
Review included countries such as Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Italy, Scotland, South Africa, Spain, United Kingdom and United States
Source: St. Michael's Hospital News and Media - Category: Hospital Management Tags: Hospital News Source Type: news
ConclusionsOur study demonstrates that more than half of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis referred to a primary care service discontinued bisphosphonates before the clinical effect can be seen and mostly because of advice by physicians not initially prescribing the drug. There is an inappropriate management of bisphosphonate therapy in terms of therapeutic efficacy and strategies aimed at ameliorating clinical management of osteoporosis patients are warranted.
Source: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
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