Transplantation of photoreceptors into the degenerative retina: Current state and future perspectives

Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Sylvia J. Gasparini, Sílvia Llonch, Oliver Borsch, Marius AderAbstractThe mammalian retina displays no intrinsic regenerative capacities, therefore retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP) result in a permanent loss of the light-sensing photoreceptor cells. The degeneration of photoreceptors leads to vision impairment and, in later stages, complete blindness. Several therapeutic strategies have been developed to slow down or prevent further retinal degeneration, however a definitive cure i.e. replacement of the lost photoreceptors, has not yet been established. Cell-based treatment approaches, by means of photoreceptor transplantation, have been studied in pre-clinical animal models over the last three decades. The introduction of pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids represents, in principle, an unlimited source for the generation of transplantable human photoreceptors. However, safety, immunological and reproducibility-related issues regarding the use of such cells still need to be solved. Moreover, the recent finding of cytoplasmic material transfer between donor and host photoreceptors demands reinterpretation of several former transplantation studies. At the same time, material transfer between healthy donor and dysfunctional patient photoreceptors also offers a potential alternative st...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

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In this study, retinal degeneration was induced through systemic administration of sodium iodate (NaIO3) at varying doses up to 80 mg/kg in Sprague-Dawley rats. An analysis on the visual response of the rats by electroretinography (ERG) showed a decrease in photoreceptor function with NaIO3 administration at a dose of 40 mg/kg or greater. The results correlated with the TUNEL assay, which revealed signs of DNA damage throughout the retina. Histomorphological analysis also revealed extensive structural lesions throughout the outer retina and parts of the inner retina. Our results provided a detailed view of NaIO3-induce...
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research
Retinal Degenerations (RD) are the leading cause of blindness in the United States. The degeneration of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) is associated with various types of RD such as Stargardt ’s disease, retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, Late-Onset Retinal Degeneration (L-ORD), and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). The RPE as a layer of cells in the back of the eye. Therefore, it is essential to maintain the health and integrity of retinal photoreceptors. RPE dysfunction and d egeneration leads to photoreceptor cell death and vision loss, a common factor among several forms of RD.To resolve these chall...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion:Bone marrow stromal stem cells can differentiate into functional retinal pigmented epithelium cells in a simple, low-cost, high-performance manner over a short period of time. These cells due to expressing the RPELC genes and markers can be used in cell replacement therapy for degenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration as well as retinitis pigmentosa.
Source: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: BiologyAuthor(s): Suet Lee Shirley Ding, Avin Ee-Hwan Koh, Suresh Kumar, Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Badr Alzahrani, Pooi Ling MokAbstractDysfunctional or death of retinal photoreceptors is an irreversible phenomenon that is closely associated with a broad range of retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), resulting in successive loss of visual function and blindness. In search for viable treatment for retinal degenerative diseases, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) h...
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research
AbstractRetinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), are major causes of blindness worldwide. Humans cannot regenerate retina, however, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a laboratory-bred salamander, can regenerate retinal tissue throughout adulthood. Classic signaling pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF), are involved in axolotl regeneration. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interaction with FGF is required for signal transduction in this pathway. GAGs are anionic polysaccharides in extracellular matrix (ECM) that have been implicated in limb and lens regen...
Source: Glycoconjugate Journal - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Biotechnology Progress - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Cell Culture and Tissue Engineering Source Type: research
In this study, we show that the expression of HTRA1 in PRCs, as well as in RPE, is increased by the disease-associated HTRA1 mutation and aging. TUNEL assay and quantitative PCR of apoptosis-associated caspases confirmed that PRC-specific overexpression of HTRA1 induced PRC death. Transgenic zebrafish overexpressing human HTRA1 in rod PRCs showed morphological changes of the RPE, including PRC death and lipofuscin accumulation, features similar to those of early AMD. htra1 expression was also increased in a retinitis pigmentosa zebrafish model compared with wild-type. In both fish lines, PRC death was rescued by the suppre...
Source: Am J Pathol - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research
AbstractRetinal degeneration diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, affect millions of people worldwide and are major causes of irreversible blindness. Effective treatments for retinal degeneration, including drug therapy, gene augmentation or transplantation approaches, have been widely investigated. Nevertheless, more research should be dedicated to therapeutic methods to improve future clinical treatments. Recently, with the rapid development of genome-editing technology, gene therapy has become a potentially effective treatment for retinal degeneration diseases. A clustered regular...
Source: Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This article will explore an overview of the clinical trials of gene supplementation therapy for retinal diseases that are underway or planned for the near future. PMID: 30040511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ophthalmic Genetics - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Ophthalmic Genet Source Type: research
Abstract A major cause for vision impairment and blindness in industrialized countries is the loss of the light-sensing retinal tissue in the eye. Photoreceptor damage is one of the main characteristics found in retinal degeneration diseases, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. The lack of effective therapies to stop photoreceptor loss together with the absence of significant intrinsic regeneration in the human retina converts such degenerative diseases into permanent conditions that are currently irreversible. Cell replacement by means of photoreceptor transplantation has been propos...
Source: Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research
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