Proliferative Index in Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytoma by Region of Origin and Prediction of Clinical Behavior

Conclusion: Proliferative index does not change by location. Higher cell proliferation was seen in younger patients and associated with shorter time to and a higher risk of recurrence. Further study is needed to identify predictors for clinical behavior.Importance of Study: This study provides a detailed analysis of the proliferative indices of tumors arising from characteristic locations within the brain. With recent advances in our understanding of the differences in molecular and genetic profiles despite similar histologic diagnoses, we felt that it was important to review whether there were unique components of tumor behavior that could be identified. In turn, we sought to determine whether tumor behavior could be used to predict the clinical course. This knowledge is important, given that not every tumor may undergo complete surgical resection, and that some lesions may require more aggressive upfront adjuvant therapy or be closely monitored for recurrence.Pediatr Neurosurg
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

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We applied machine learning algorithms for differentiation of posterior fossa tumors using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis and structural MRI findings. A total of 256 patients with intra-axial posterior fossa tumors were identified, of whom 248 were included in machine learning analysis, with at least 6 representative subjects per each tumor pathology. The ADC histograms of solid components of tumors, structural MRI findings, and patients' age were applied to construct decision models using Classification and Regression Tree analysis. We also compared different machine learning classification algori...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Dual BRAF/MEK inhibitor therapy represents an exciting treatment option for patients with BRAF V600E primary brain tumors. In addition to greater efficacy than single-agent dabrafenib, this combination has the potential to mitigate cutaneous toxicity, one of the most common and concerning BRAF inhibitor-related adverse events. PMID: 31675726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Arjuna Maharaj, Branavan Manoranjan, Leonard H. Verhey, Adam J. Fleming, Forough Farrokhyar, Saleh Almenawer, Sheila K. Singh, Blake YarascavitchAbstractPurposeThe present study aims to determine the tumor-related, clinical, and demographic factors associated with extent of resection (EOR) and post-operative outcomes in JPA patients.MethodsAll patients with JPA, identified from a single-center brain tumour data base, were included in this retrospective analysis. Pre-operative MRI scans were reviewed by a single neurosurgeon ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractObjective5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) –guided resection of gliomas in adults enables better delineation between tumor and normal brain, allowing improved resection and improved patients’ outcome. Recently, several reports were published regarding 5-ALA for resection of pediatric brain tumors. The aim of the study was to determine th e intracellular fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in pediatric brain tumors by hyperspectral imaging and to compare it with visually observed intraoperative fluorescence.Methods5-ALA was administered orally 4  h prior to surgery. During tumor resection, the surg...
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
AbstractThe surgical management of hydrocephalus in patients with posterior fossa lesions (PFL) is critical for optimal patient outcome(s). Accordingly, it is prudent to identify patients in need of aggressive surgical intervention (i.e., ventriculoperitoneal [VP] shunting). To analyze prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, the development of post-operative hydrocephalus in both pediatrics and adults. A retrospective institutional analysis and review of patient records in those who had undergone PFL surgery was performed. In so doing, the authors identified patients that went on to develop post-operative hydrocep...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
We present three cases of NF1 patients referred for 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT because of suspected glioma in the setting of ongoing FUMEGA (Functional and Metabolic Glioma Analysis) trial. One case turned out to be a WHO grade I ganglioglioma; the second was a high grade glioma; and the last one (negative in PET) a probable low-grade glioma.
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The authors' results show that surgical smoke from various brain tumors has distinct DMS profiles and the DMS analyzer connected to a special sampling system can differentiate between tumorous and nontumorous tissue and also between different tumor types ex vivo. PMID: 31200382 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
Background: Amphiregulin (AREG) is one of the ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor which levels was shown to have a tight coherence with various types of cancer. AREG was also designated to be a promising marker for several types of cancer however precious little data about AREG role in the most frequent and generally lethal human brain tumours - astrocytomas reported up to date. The aim of the study was to investigate how AREG changes at epigenetic and expression levels reflect on astrocytoma malignancy and patient outcome.Methods: In total 205 low and high grade astrocytoma samples (15 pilocytic astrocytomas, ...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests that 64CuCl2 is accumulating in some but not all high-grade brain tumors. There appears to variability in the grade of Copper uptake in all grades of tumors. More data is being accumulated to define the cutoff of copper uptake as potential differentiating features for identifying possible theragnostic targets.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Neurology & amp; Psychiatry Imaging Posters Source Type: research
156Objectives: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in children and are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. [18F] FDG PET/CT has been of limited utility in the evaluation of brain tumors, due to the high level of FDG uptake in the normal brain. Other PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as [18F] FLT, a putative measure of cellular proliferation, have demonstrated promise for the evaluation of brain tumors in adults, but have not been studied systematically in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of [18F] FLT to assess cellular proliferation in pediatric brain...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Pediatrics Source Type: research
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