Cognitive decline -- radiation -- brain tumor prevented by temporarily shutting down immune response

(University of California - San Francisco) In a new study published Nov. 13 in the journal eLife, UC San Francisco scientists report the first animal model of glioma -- the most aggressive and most common form of brain cancer in the US -- that can also be used to study the long-term effects of radiation therapy in tumor-bearing brains. Using this mouse model, the researchers showed that a drug that temporarily suppresses a key component of the brain's immune system can prevent radiation-associated cognitive decline.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Conclusions: 18F-Fluoroglutamine PET appears sensitive for diagnosis of early/late progression of brain tumor progression post-treatment.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Novel Brain Imaging Targets Source Type: research
Antonio Lucena-Cacace1, Masayuki Umeda1, Lola E. Navas2,3 and Amancio Carnero2,3* 1Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 2CIBERONC, ISCIII, Madrid, Spain 3Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío (HUVR), CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain Glioma Cancer Stem-Like Cells (GSCs) are a small subset of CD133+ cells with self-renewal properties and capable of initiating new tumors contributing to Glioma progression, maintenance, hierarchy, and complexity. GSCs are highly res...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Chiu-Min Lin1†, Ching-Fang Yu2,3†, Hsueh-Ya Huang1,4, Fang-Hsin Chen2,3,5, Ji-Hong Hong2,3,5 and Chi-Shiun Chiang1,6,7* 1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Branch, Taoyuan, Taiwan 3Radiation Biology Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 4Education &Medical Research National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan 5Department of Medical Imaging an...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Successful use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in a variety of cancers has generated interest in using this approach in pediatric brain tumors. We performed a retrospective review of 10 consecutive children (6 boys, 4 girls; ages, 2 to 17 y), with recurrent or refractory pediatric brain tumors (5 high-grade glioma, 1 low-grade glioma, pineoblastoma, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and CNS embryonal tumor, NOS) treated at Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego from 2015 to 2017 with the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 wk). Eight of 10 patients received prior chemotherapy and 9 radi...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - Category: Hematology Tags: Online Articles: Original Articles Source Type: research
Conclusion: The efficacy of brainstem gliomas—treated with CyberKnife is efficacious with mild toxicity. Introduction Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) account for 5–15% of brain tumors and more likely happen in children (1). BSGs constitute at least 20% of childhood brain neoplasms (2), and the peak age is 7–9 years. In contrast, BSGs is rare in the adult population and account for only 1.5–2.5% of brain glioma, with a peak age of 40–70 years (1). Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma(DIPG) was the most common type of BSG is that could invade the whole brainstem including midbrain, pons as well as me...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Discussion Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is an essential molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and subverting inflammation. Disorders arising from excess inflammation or SOCS1 deficiency can be potentially treated with SOCS1 mimetics (Ahmed et al., 2015). While SOCS1 has promising potential in many disorders, it should be noted that new targets and actions of SOCS1 are still being discovered and not all the effects of this protein are beneficial in autoimmune diseases and cancer. For instance, SOCS1 degrades IRS1 and IRS2, required for insulin signaling, via the SOCS Box domain, thus, limiting its potential in ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
We examined the following three conditions: DMEM high glucose which contained 4.5 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum, DMEM low glucose which contained 1.0 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum. And, DMEM no glucose which contained 0.0 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum. DMEM is referred to as glucose “free,” however some glucose was actually present due to the FBS. The glucose concentration in the FBS used was 1.04 mg/ml. We calculate 0.0937 mg/ml glucose was present in the media under all conditions due to the addition of serum. Quantification of ROS Levels ROS are widely evaluated in tissue culture using di...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis proof-of-concept study provides a novel demonstration of marked DIPG cell susceptibility to low intensity electric fields delivered using IMT. The potent impact as a monotherapy and when integrated into multi-modality treatment platforms justifies further investigations into the potential of IMT as a critically needed biomedical innovation for DIPG.
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
by Gertrud Rey Although cancer therapies have improved dramatically in recent years, the main options for treating cancer still consist of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. This limitation is a problem for aggressive cancers like glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), brain cancers which are typically resistant to traditional therapies. GBM is a high grade glioma, an aggressive […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Gertrud Rey Information glioblastoma multiforme herpes simplex virus viral viral oncotherapy viruses Source Type: blogs
(NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) In a study of mice and human brain tumors researchers at the University of the Michigan, Ann Arbor, searched for new treatments by exploring the reasons why some patients with gliomas live remarkably longer than others. The results suggested that certain patients' tumor cells are less aggressive and much better at repairing DNA than others but are difficult to kill with radiation. The researchers then showed that combining radiation therapy with cancer drugs designed to block DNA repair may be an effective treatment strategy.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
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