An overview of the neurosurgical implications, pathophysiology, diagnosis and recent treatment strategies for Grade IV idiopathic osteolysis, also known as Gorham-Stout or phantom bone disease.

CONCLUSION: We included early in the investigation protocols a total body fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) scan that was extremely helpful to promptly rule out malignant or infective nature of osteolysis. An update on the diagnostic and management options available for GSD, with particular reference to the role of nuclear medicine and the latest clinical trials from international patients registries and classification of idiopathic osteolysis is provided. PMID: 30411730 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research

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Conclusion: The presented method does not require a learning stage and enables a duty cycle close to 100%, higher average acoustic intensity and avoidance of side lobe effects versus performing HIFU beam steering to compensate tissue motion. Significance: To our knowledge, the proposed method provides the first experimental validation of the self-scanning HIFU ablation paradigm via a real-time hybrid MRI/US imaging, opening the path toward self-scanning in vivo therapies.
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
The objective of this paper is to investigate the detectability of breast tumors having various histological types in excised breast tissues of total mastectomy. The tumor images measured by a portable impulse-radio-ultra-wideband (IR-UWB)-radar-based breast cancer detector are compared with both pathological images and images of dedicated breast positron emission tomography. It is found that the detector can detect invasive-ductal-carcinomas and extensive intraductal component in the dense breast. The density of the breast has a correlation to the effective permittivity derived from the reconstructed confocal images. The ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Conclusion and Significance: This system has the capability to operate within the strong magnetic field of a clinical 3-T MRI, to form proper particle aggregates and to automatically inject these aggregates into the MRI bore. Moreover, the versatility of the proposed injector renders it suitable for selective injections of MDEBs during MR-guided embolization procedures.
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
In this study, we apply a diffusion “signal” model (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI) and two commonly implemented “microstructural” models (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, NODDI; spherical mean technique, SMT) in the human cervical spinal cord of twenty-one healthy controls. We first provide normative values of DTI, SMT, and NODDI indices in a number of white matter ascending and descending pathways, as well as various gray matter regions. We then aim to validate the sensitivity and specificity of these diffusion-derived contrasts by relating these measures to indices of the tissue...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated whether neural dedifferentiation extends to auditory cortex. Inspired by previous animal work, we also investigated whether individual differences in GABA are associated with individual differences in neural distinctiveness in humans. 20 healthy young adults (ages 18–29) and 23 healthy older adults (over 65) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, during which neural activity was estimated while they listened to music and foreign speech. GABA levels in the auditory, ventrovisual and sensorimotor cortex were estimated in the same individuals in a separate magnetic ...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Karaca S, Enercan M, Levent Ulusoy O, Hamaoglu A Abstract T55 patients with cement-augmented pedicle screw were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent computed tomography at a minimum of 2 years after index operation. Computed tomography scans were analyzed to determine pedicle screw loosening, cement leakage, and fusion rates at augmented levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy and complications of cement augmentation in elderly patients. Screw loosening occurred at fused levels in all patients, except one patient with pseudoarthrosis. All cases of screw loosening occurred ...
Source: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Acta Orthop Belg Source Type: research
Authors: Persiani P, Dario Gurzi M, Formica A, Ruggeri A, Villani C Abstract A Lisfranc injury is when one or more of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. The term is more commonly used to describe an injury to the midfoot, centred on the 2nd tarso-metatarsal joint. These fractures are sometimes easily overlooked, especially if they are part of a polytrauma. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat, but if they go undetected and are not properly treated, they can cause long-term or chronic disability. Our team reviewed a group of 71 patients with a Lisfranc fracture dislocation. The lesions were cla...
Source: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Acta Orthop Belg Source Type: research
Authors: Carmona-Abellan M, Rodríguez-Lago I, Cabriada JL, Gómez-Esteban JC Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can precede by many years the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and these patients can show some degree of inflammation associated with abnormal aggregates of alpha-synuclein in the GI tract. The abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein and the spreading of the aggregates from the gut to the brain might be promoted by inflammation, rising the hypothesis of a possible relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and PD. Many population-based studies have explored this associat...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Authors: Holmberg D, Ness-Jensen E, Mattsson F, Lagergren J Abstract Background and aim: Clinical guidelines recommend endoscopy surveillance at given intervals or endoscopic therapy for Barrett's esophagus with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD). Whether these guidelines are followed in clinical practice is unknown and was assessed in this study. Methods: This nationwide Swedish cohort study included patients with Barrett's esophagus with histologically verified LGD or HGD from 50 centers in 2006-2013. These patients were followed up using nationwide registers. Adherence to clinical guideline...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
We propose a novel optical effect that involves switching the nonlinear refractive index of colloids and solutions by applying an external field. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of the colloidal aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were studied using the z-scan technique by ...
Source: Journal of the Optical Society of America B - Category: Physics Authors: Source Type: research
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