Regulatory B and T lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis: friends or foes?

AbstractCurrent clinical experience with immunomodulatory agents and monoclonal antibodies in principle has established the benefit of depleting lymphocytic populations in relapsing –remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). B and T cells may exert multiple pro-inflammatory actions, but also possess regulatory functions making their role in RRMS pathogenesis much more complex. There is no clear correlation of Tregs and Bregs with clinical features of the disease. Herein, we discus s the emerging data on regulatory T and B cell subset distributions in MS and their roles in the pathophysiology of MS and its murine model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In addition, we summarize the immunomodulatory properties of certain MS therapeutic agents through their effec t on such regulatory cell subsets and their relevance to clinical outcomes.
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yam Nath Paudel, Efthalia Angelopoulou, Bhuvan K. C, Christina Piperi, Iekhsan OthmanAbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease with distinctive features of focal demyelination, axonal loss, activation of glial cells, and immune cells infiltration. The precise molecular mechanism underlying the disease progression remains enigmatic despite of the rapid progression on experimental and clinical MS research. The focus of MS therapy relies on the repression of the pathogenic autoimmune response without compromis...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis study is first to demonstrate that X-chromosome-linked IRAK1 polymorphisms are associated with the risk of NMOSD and provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of this disease. Further studies are needed to elucidate the function of IRAK1 variants in the pathogenesis of NMOSD and the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Intestinal functions, including motility and secretion, are locally controlled by enteric neural networks housed within the wall of the gut. The fidelity of these functions depends on the precision of intercellular signaling amongst cellular elements, including enteric neurons, epithelial cells, immune cells, and glia, all of which are vulnerable to disruptive influences during inflammatory events. This review article describes current knowledge regarding inflammation-induced neuroplasticity along key elements of enteric neural circuits, what is known about the causes of these changes, and possible therap...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research
Conclusion: Data demonstrated that the guluronic acid is able to modify the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TNF-α genes to less than the pathogenic boarder line level, which it might be recommended for reducing the pathological process in multiple sclerosis. PMID: 31594427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Source Type: research
Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system comprise a heterogeneous group of autoimmune disorders characterized by myelin loss with relative sparing of axons occurring on a background of inflammation. Some of the most common demyelinating diseases are multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Besides showing clinical, radiological, and histopathological features that complicate their diagnosis, demyelinating diseases often involve different immunological processes that produce distinct inflammatory patterns. Evidence of demyelination diseases derives mo...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that within MS NAWM, which appears to be involved at the very least, intense diffuse micro- and astroglia reactions occur. Possibly, microglia rather support proinflammatory mechanisms, whereas astrocytes seem to be more neuroprotective. Diffuse microglia proliferation indicates that CNS immune system is chronically activated within the whole CNS. PMID: 31588711 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research
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Source: Biotechnology Progress - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: NOTE Source Type: research
Purpose of review Optic neuritis is an autoimmune optic neuropathy that has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and more recently antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG)-positive disorder. At initial presentation, it is often difficult to differentiate these entities given their significant overlap in clinical presentation and MRI findings. This review summarizes the distinguishing clinical and radiological features of MS, NMOSD, and anti-MOG disorders to help clinicians accurately diagnose and manage patients affected by these conditions. Recent findi...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research
Purpose of review Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising therapeutic modality for severe autoimmune diseases. In this review, we will outline the immunological mechanisms and the clinical evidence and experiences for therapeutic HSCT in autoimmune diseases, with particular focus on systemic sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Recent findings Approximately 3000 patients with autoimmune diseases worldwide have been treated with HSCT. HSCT in systemic sclerosis has been shown in three randomized controlled trials to be associated with significant long-term event-free survival despite some ...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by David Rizzieri Source Type: research
Conclusion Vitamin D enhances IFN-β induction of multiple proteins and also reverses the Th1/Th2 bias in MS seen with IFN-β alone. The combination of vitamin D and IFN-β has potential benefit in ameliorating MS.
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Endocrine, Nutritional, All Demyelinating disease (CNS), Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research
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