The Critical Role EMS Plays in Fighting the Flu
Influenza has been impacting public health on a global scale since the beginning of recorded history. Influenza, also known as the “flu,” has numerous organizations committed to public health research, developing vaccines, and educating best practices preparing for the upcoming flu season. By gaining an understanding of the flu through history, virology, and how it impacts our society, we can have a better appreciation for the commitment that’s involved with combating the flu. What Is Influenza (and What’s Not)? The eyes of an epidemiologist can twitch for a variety of reasons, one of them being when someone says they have the “stomach flu.” In reality, influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. Symptoms usually include fever, a non-productive cough, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and fatigue.1 The “stomach flu” is most likely gastroenteritis, commonly caused by the norovirus; a virus which causes symptoms such as cramping, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and is also highly contagious.1 The U.S. sees about 20 million norovirus-related illnesses each year.2 Alternatively, another similar ailment during flu season is the garden-variety common cold. Although both the flu and cold are respiratory illnesses, the flu usually has more severe and sudden onset of symptoms while the common cold usually includes a gradual onset of symptoms such as sneezing, head congestion and a sore throat. Self-diagnosi...
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologyAuthor(s): Claudia Cheng, Martin Healey, Uri P Dior
Introduction: 34-year-old pregnant woman gravida 2, para 2, presented at Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, in 38 weeks of pregnancy due to headache, head dizziness, nausea and fever. During the last 6 months of pregnancy she had three episodes of headache and head dizziness. She was consulted by obstetrician gynecologist, there were no obstetric pathologies. After neurological counselling, a computerized tomography (CT) revealed a brain tumor.
Introduction: Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a rare clinicoradiological condition characterised by altered mental status, headaches, seizures and cortical vasogenic oedema.
Introduction: Ogilvie syndrome, as a rare postsurgical complication depicts the condition characterized by an acute colonic pseudo-obstruction which occurs in the absence of a mechanical cause. Mostly, it is reported after surgical procedures, including cesarean section (CS); however, it remains unfamiliar for obstetricians due to a prompt recognition which leads to a delayed diagnosis resulting in possible fatal outcomes.
Introduction: Birth by caesarean section today is a preferred method of birth of a considerable number of pregnant women, as well as a relatively high number of obstetric gynaecologists. The rate of caesarean section in Kosovo marks a year on year increase.
Introduction: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of indirect maternal mortality world-wide, but it is a rare diagnosis to make in the Northeast of England. In the UK, the incidence has been estimated at 1/24,000 maternities, with all cases found in women of ethnic minorities born outside the UK, most commonly recent immigrants. New presentations in pregnancy can present a diagnostic challenge; extrapulmonary TB is more common, so classical symptoms of cough, dyspnoea and haemoptysis are seen less frequently than non-specific symptoms including malaise, weight loss and night sweats.
Introduction: A venous sinus thrombosis is a thrombotic occlusion of the cerebral venous drainage. Patients present with unspecific symptoms such as headache, vision disturbances, or altered consciousness. Complications include intracerebral bleeding and/or increased intracranial pressure leading to poor neurological outcome. Besides clotting disorders, pregnancy and puerperium constitute risk factors for this rare condition. Roughly 0.004 –0.01% of pregnancies are complicated by cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST).
Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that can cause various disease states including genital or venereal warts, benign growths (papillomas), cancers, or more commonly, transient infections. Almost 100% of all cervical cancer cases are caused by HPV. HPV vaccination can reduce the risk of infection.
Introduction: Homocysteine (HCY) is an amino acid that is known to increase in the maternal circulation if either folate or vitamin B12 are inadequate. It has previously been shown that HCY levels are lower in women who are taking folic acid (FA) supplementation and higher in women with pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects (NTDs). It has also been reported that maternal HCY correlates negatively with birth weight.
Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) epidemic is characterized by around half a million deaths and 1.7 million new cases registered annually worldwide. An epidemic scale of BC prevalence is actually recognized with increasing trends both in the post- and premenopausal BC prevalence and metastatic disease is major cause of death in this patient cohort. Particularly alarming is that the sporadic BC (90% of all patients) creates currently unpredictable subpopulations in terms of disease predisposition, development and progression.
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