St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Reported in a Wisconsin Resident

The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) announced today thata confirmed human case of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) disease in a resident of Dane County, the first reported case in the state since 1981. SLEV isrelated to West Nile virus (WNV) and, like WNV, is spread to people through the bite of an infected mosquito. SLEV is not transmitted person-to-person. SLEV is rare in Wisconsin...(see release)
Source: Wisconsin DHFS Press Releases - Category: Hospital Management Authors: Source Type: news

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Abstract Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are two major mosquito borne flaviviruses belonging to same serocomplex. JEV is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and the reservoir host for the virus is pigs and/or water birds. WNV is also transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and reservoir host in this case is birds. It can also be transmitted through contact with other infected animals, their blood, or other tissues. The envelope protein of these viruses is the major source of epitopes and provides protective immunity. Bioinformatics tools were used to identify conserved epitopes in the envelope prot...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
. Arkin Viroporins are a family of small hydrophobic proteins found in many enveloped viruses that are capable of ion transport. Building upon the ability to inhibit influenza by blocking its archetypical M2 H+ channel, as a family, viroporins may represent a viable target to curb viral infectivity. To this end, using three bacterial assays we analyzed six small hydrophobic proteins from biomedically important viruses as potential viroporin candidates. Our results indicate that Eastern equine encephalitis virus 6k, West Nile virus MgM, Dengue virus 2k, Dengue virus P1, Variola virus gp170, and Variola virus gp151 prote...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ntonyuk Japanese encephalitis (JE) is inflammation and swelling of the brain caused by the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne member of the Flavivirus family. There are around 68,000 JE cases worldwide each year, many of which result in permanent brain damage and death. There is no specific treatment for JE. Here we present the crystal structure of the JEV capsid protein, a potential drug target, at 1.98 Å, and compare it to other flavivirus capsid proteins. The JEV capsid has a helical secondary structure (α helixes 1–4) and a similar protein fold to the dengue virus (DENV), the West Nile v...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Annapaola Rizzoli, Valentina Tagliapietra, Francesca Cagnacci, Giovanni Marini, Daniele Arnoldi, Fausta Rosso, Roberto RosàAbstractIn the Anthropocene context, changes in climate, land use and biodiversity are considered among the most important anthropogenic factors affecting parasites-host interaction and wildlife zoonotic diseases emergence. Transmission of vector borne pathogens are particularly sensitive to these changes due to the complexity of their cycle, where the transmission of a...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated whether immunization with NS1 could protect against WNV neuroinvasion in the context of TLR3 deficiency. We immunized mice with either an intact or deleted TLR3 system (TLR3KO) with WNV envelope glycoprotein (gE) protein, NS1, or a combination of gE and NS1. Immunization with gE or gE/NS1, but not with NS1 alone, induced WNV neutralizing antibodies and protected against WNV brain invasion and inflammation. The presence of intact TLR3 signaling had no apparent effect on WNV brain invasion. However, mock-immunized TLR3KO mice had higher inflammatory cell invasion upon WNV brain infection than N...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Parvez Singh Slathia, Preeti SharmaAbstractJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are two major mosquito borne flaviviruses belonging to same serocomplex. JEV is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and the reservoir host for the virus is pigs and/or water birds. WNV is also transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and reservoir host in this case is birds. It can also be transmitted through contact with other infected animals, their blood, or other tissues. The envelope protein of these virus...
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Annapaola Rizzoli, Valentina Tagliapietra, Francesca Cagnacci, Giovanni Marini, Daniele Arnoldi, Fausta Rosso, Roberto RosàAbstractIn the great acceleration phase of the Anthropocene, changes in climate, land use and biodiversity are considered among the most important drivers of modifications in parasites-host interaction and wildlife zoonotic disease emergence. In the case of vector-borne diseases, changes in vector-host interaction require a continuous monitoring since this parameter con...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Molecular and Cellular ProbesAuthor(s): Serafeim C. Chaintoutis, Elpida Papadopoulou, Angeliki Melidou, Anna Papa, Chrysostomos I. DovasAbstractLineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains have been implicated in severe encephalitis outbreaks in humans and equines residing in Europe. WNV molecular characterization is important for the development of diagnostic assays, as well as for obtaining molecular information, which is necessary for epidemiological investigations of virus transmission in areas at risk. For whole genome sequencing of lineage 2 WNV strains, directly from...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2019Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 26, Issue 3Author(s): Emmanuel A. BurdmannThe genus Flavivirus comprises approximately 73 viruses, which share several common aspects, such as dimension, structure, nucleic acid properties, and shape in electronic microscopy. Global incidence of flavivirus infection increased dramatically over the last decades, causing large outbreaks in several areas of the world. These viruses are expanding from endemic tropical and subtropical areas to previously nonendemic areas, affecting and causing diseases in millions of individuals worldwide and posing a ...
Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flavivirus family that includes Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus. As the most prevalent of the flaviviruses, DENV is responsible for tens of millions of infections each year. The clinical manifestations of infection with one of the four DENV serotypes (DENV1–4) range from no symptoms to hemorrhagic fever and shock (“severe dengue”), which is fatal in ~25,000 patients annually. Many factors contribute to the development of severe dengue, including the DENV serotype and host expression of certain HLA alleles; howev...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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