Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): Impact on Saudi Arabia, 2015

Publication date: November 2018Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 7Author(s): Uzma FaridiAbstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome is the acute respiratory syndrome caused by betacoronavirus MERS-CoV. The first case of this disease was reported from Saudi Arabia in 2012. This virus is lethal and is a close relative of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which is responsible for more than 3000 deaths in 2002–2003. According to Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. The number of new cases is 457 in 2015. Riyadh has the highest number of reports in comparison to the other cities. According to this report, males are more susceptible than female, especially after the age of 40. Because of the awareness and early diagnosis the incidence is falling gradually. The pre-existence of another disease like cancer or diabetic etc. boosts the infection. MERS is a zoonotic disease and human to human transmission is low. The MERS-CoV is a RNA virus with protein envelope. On the outer surface, virus has spike like glycoprotein which is responsible for the attachment and entrance inside host cells. There is no specific treatment for the MERS-CoV till now, but drugs are in pipeline which bind with the spike glycoprotein and inhibit its entrance host cells. MERS-CoV and SAR-CoV are from the same genus, so it was thought that the drugs which inhibit the growth of SARS-CoV can also inhibit the growth of MERS-CoV but those drugs are not completely inhibiting viru...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of LipidsAuthor(s): Zhen Wang, Hui Gyu Park, Dong Hao Wang, Riki Kitano, Kumar S.D. Kothapalli, J. Thomas BrennaAbstractBranched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and linear chain/normal odd chain fatty acids (n-OCFA) are major fatty acids in human skin lipids, especially sebaceous gland (SG) wax esters. Skin lipids contain variable amounts of monounsaturated BCFA and n-OCFA, in some reports exceeding over 20% of total fatty acids. Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) codes for a multifunctional enzyme that catalyz...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
This study evaluated outcomes associated with treatment strategies for this nonagenarian population.MethodsTreatment and overall survival for patients 90 years and older with NSCLC in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2014) were evaluated using logistic regression, the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models.ResultsThe majority (n = 4152, 57.6%) of the 7205 patients 90 years or older with stage I-IV NSCLC did not receive any therapy. For the entire cohort, receiving treatment was associated with significantly better survival when compared with no therapy (5-year survival, 9.3% [95% confidenc...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe delay in surgical resection of StageIIIa NSCLC is not associated increased early mortality, however it is associated with worse 3-year post-resection survival.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Wanyu Dong, Wenting Xie, Yunbo Liu, Baokun Sui, Hao Zhang, Liran Liu, Yubei Tan, Xiaohan Tong, Zhen F. Fu, Ping Yin, Liurong Fang, Guiqing PengAbstractEmerging coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause severe gastroenteric or respiratory diseases in humans and animals, and no approved therapeutics are currently available. Here, A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) of the tyrphostin class, is identified as a robust inhibitor of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection in cell-based assays. Moreover, A9 exhibited potent ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results of the present investigation demonstrated significant variations in the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of different solvent extracts. These data could be helpful in isolation of pure potent compounds with good biological activities from the extracts of plants.
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, data presented in the current study suggest that tobacco smoking might cause alveolar tissue inflammation and vascular injury causing an immune response that elevates the white blood cells count. Another suggestion is that tobacco smoking defects the pulmonary gaseous exchange mechanism leading to the secondary polycythemia indicated by the increase in red blood cell count, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit and by the low serum erythropoietin levels.
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, advanced biotech methods of in vitro culture have been used to identify a technique for the efficient mass multiplication of H. rosa-sinensis ‘White Butterfly’, using phenyl urea, N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (4-CPPU). For the first time, the effects of 4-CPPU for stimulating axillary shoot proliferation and multiple shoot re-generations from nodal explants were evaluated, and the optimal nutrient media deduced. From the diverse concentrations as 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0 &10.0 µM of 4-CPPU, the highest frequency of shoots was recorded at with 2.5 µM supplied in Murashige a...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Saudi Journal of Biological SciencesAuthor(s): V. Duraipandiyan, R. Balamurugan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, T. William Raja, P. Ganesan, B. Ahilan, M. Valan Arasu, S. Ignacimuthu, Galal Ali EsmailAbstractBorassus flabellifer L. is a tall palm traditionally used for its stimulating, diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities; it is rich in fibers and various pharmacologically important secondary metabolites. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of Borassus flabellifer fruit methanol extract (BF-M) on diabetic rats induced with High Fat D...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we report that the dietary isoflavone genistein (GN) synergistically improved antineoplasticity of CC in breast cancer by arresting cells at G2/M phase culminating in ROS dependent apoptosis. The combination of CC plus GN caused dysregulation of Bax and Bcl-2 ratio inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of Caspase-3/7, -9 and PARP cleavage. Further, combination significantly suppresses phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB, enhancing apoptosis. Additionally, combination markedly reduced tumor growth compared to CC and GN alone in mouse 4T1 breast tumor model.SignificanceTogether, these studies sugg...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Kosar Babaei, Shima Shams, Arman Keymoradzadeh, Sogand Vahidi, Parisa Hamami, Roya Khaksar, Seyedeh Elham Norollahi, Ali Akbar SamadaniAbstractImportance of dysregulation and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been confiemed in many disorders comprising cancer. In this way, different approaches to induce reprogramming from one cell type to another in oerder to control the cell normal mechanisem, comprising microRNAs, combinatorial small molecules, exosome-mediated reprogramming, embryonic microenvironment and also lineage-specific transcri...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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