What's next in using CT scans to better understand cachexia?

Purpose of review Cachexia (CAX), a protein metabolism disorder commonly associated with cancer, can be evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan assessment of skeletal muscle mass (SMM), a parameter associated with patient outcome. This review analyzes current barriers for using CT scans of SMM in routine management for defining prognostic risk groups, and proposes new areas of research to reach a better understanding of CAX mechanisms. Recent findings Current research is focused on establishing a robust and relevant CAX staging system to reach a consensual definition. Previous biomarkers of CAX are poorly associated with outcome and do not exhibit clinical benefit. Systemic inflammatory marker, decrease in intake assessments, and/or nonnutritional criteria have been integrated to develop a multidimensional, highly complex CAX signature and CAX staging. Summary A standardized definition of sarcopenia is essential, and its value in clinical practice should be evaluated in prospective interventional studies using skeletal muscle assessment. SMM loss may be a key element in defining early protein disorders occurring before weight loss and could be used as a trigger for initiating early nutritional support. Changes in SMM and body composition during follow-up are useful tools for exploring CAX mechanisms in terms of intrinsic factors or tumor evolution.
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

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ConclusionsMTV, a volumetric parameter of FDG PET/CT, is an important independent prognostic factor for PFS to the first line palliative treatment, irrespective of tumor subtype, in patients with MBC.Legal entity responsible for the studyThe authors.FundingHas not received any funding.DisclosureY.H. Park: Advisory / Consultancy, Research grant / Funding (self): AstraZeneca; Advisory / Consultancy, Research grant / Funding (self): Pfizer; Advisory / Consultancy, Research grant / Funding (self): Eisai; Advisory / Consultancy, Research grant / Funding (self): Novartis; Research grant / Funding (self): Roche. All other authors...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Here, we report a case of pyothorax ‐associated angiosarcoma. Our patient had computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest annually to monitor chronic empyema, and to screen for cancers. Our patient was diagnosed with angiosarcoma within a month period after complaining of chest pain. This is the very first report on angiosarcoma who se aggressive growth could be observed on CT imaging. An 82 ‐year‐old man with chronic tuberculous empyema visited our hospital for an annual computed tomography (CT) scan. No differences were noted between the CT scan at presentation and a scan performed a year previously in August 2017....
Source: Respirology Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Conclusions11C-choline PET/CT and the correspondent local treatments may play an important role in the treatment sequence of CRPC in selected patients.
Source: International Urology and Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
In conclusion, patients with tumor spread to the anterolateral/lateral portion of vertebrae bodies based on CT scan diagnosis experienced severe cancer pain. These patients needed strong opioids or palliative spinal irradiation for pain relief. PMID: 31214273 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Pain Research and Management - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Pain Res Manag Source Type: research
This study has terrific significance and could be extremely important,” Harbut, clinical professor of internal medicine at Wayne State University and Michigan State University, told The Mesothelioma Center at Asbestos.com. “We’re going after this one with great guns.” The study is part of a new partnership between Owlstone Medical — the Breath Biopsy inventor in the United Kingdom — and the International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers, a building trade union that covers the United States and Canada. Early Diagnosis Still a Rarity The first part of the study ...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
ConclusionPrimary adenocarcinoma of the jaw is extremely rare, except for 2–3% central mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The possibility of a metastatic tumor should be a consideration when encountering unusual histomorphology of an adenocarcinoma in the jaw bone.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
We examined this association in a nationwide population-based cohort study.Materials and methodsA nationwide population-based cohort study of all patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic cancer (resection or a palliative procedure) registered in the Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database from May 2011 to May 2016. We defined waiting time to surgery in two ways: 1) from the date of entry into the National Cancer Pathway to the date of surgery and 2) from the date of the last preoperative computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET-CT) scan to the date of surgery. Waiting time was grouped into three groups:
Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
1139Introduction: Thoracic malignancies are among the most common malignancies diagnosed both in the United States and worldwide. Radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role in the treatment of thoracic malignancies. Depending on the primary disease site and tumor stage, RT can be used as monotherapy, or as part of multimodality therapy for curative intent, or for palliative reduction of advanced disease. In fact, more than 50% of all patients with thoracic malignancies will receive RT as part of their multidisciplinary care. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is commonly used for initial cancer d...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Educational Exhibit Posters Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Penile localization is an extremely rare event and a standard of care has not been elaborated. Treatments are palliative and mainly aimed at pain relief and can comprise chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Identification of venous thrombosis as an early sign of involvement could potentially offer patients an earlier diagnosis and a better treatment option. PMID: 31072230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Tumori - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Tumori Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn carefully selected patients of GB NECs, downsizing with NACT facilitates radical resection with negative margins.
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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