Targeting the divergent TGFβ superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 for therapy of anorexia/cachexia syndromes

Purpose of review To review recent finding on MIC-1/GDF15 and re-evaluate it as a potential target for the therapy of anorexia/cachexia syndromes. Recent findings MIC-1/GDF15 consistently induces anorexia/cachexia in animal models. Its actions on brainstem feeding centers leads to anorexia, inducing prolonged undernutrition and consequent loss of both lean and fat mass. Epidemiological studies by multiple groups have linked substantially elevated serum levels of this cytokine to anorexia/cachexia syndromes in diverse diseases such as cancer, chronic renal and cardiac failure, and chronic obstructive lung disease. These elevated serum levels are similar to those required to induce this syndrome in animals. Recent identifications of its previously elusive receptor as GFRAL, has enhanced understanding of its biology and suggests that modulating the MIC-1/GDF15–GFRAL pathway may be a therapeutic target for anorexia/cachexia syndrome. Summary Inhibiting MIC-1/GDF15 or its receptor GFRAL are high-value potential targets for treatment of anorexia/cachexia syndrome in patients whose elevated serum levels may justify its use.
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Although only 3 cases are reported, the exceptional results and the absence of side effects observed strongly warrant future trials to investigate the role intraperitoneal chemotherapy can have both as palliative treatment of refractory ascites and as salvage therapy in advanced endometrial cancer. PMID: 31597138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncology Source Type: research
Opinion StatementCannabis is a useful botanical with a wide range of therapeutic potential. Global prohibition over the past century has impeded the ability to study the plant as medicine. However, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been developed as a stand-alone pharmaceutical initially approved for the treatment of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in 1986. The indication was expanded in 1992 to include treatment of anorexia in patients with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Hence, if the dominant cannabinoid is available as a schedule III prescription medication, it would seem logical that the parent botanical woul...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
"How Long Have I Got?"-A Prospective Cohort Study Comparing Validated Prognostic Factors for Use in Patients with Advanced Cancer. Oncologist. 2019 Apr 11;: Authors: Simmons C, McMillan DC, Tuck S, Graham C, McKeown A, Bennett M, O'Neill C, Wilcock A, Usborne C, Fearon KC, Fallon M, Laird BJ, IPAC Study Group Abstract BACKGROUND: The optimal prognostic factors in patients with advanced cancer are not known, as a comparison of these is lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal prognostic factors by comparing validated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
CONCLUSION:: Palliative and supportive care services were widely underutilized, which may be related to a lack of standardized symptom assessments and poor end-of-life communication. Novel strategies are needed to improve the implementation of tools for systematic symptom assessment and to optimize the integration of supportive care interventions into oncology care in developing countries. PMID: 30907241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: J Palliat Care Source Type: research
Opinion statementThe symptom prevalence in patients with advanced cancer depends on the type of primary cancer, and the palliative treatment varies according to the nature of the primary cancer. Palliative treatment for unresectable skin cancer has not been fully discussed. Patients with unresectable skin cancer sometimes show the primary lesion in the skin and metastases to the lung, skin, liver, and bone. Pain, anorexia, and dyspnea commonly occur in such patients, and bleeding, exudate, and offensive odor are characteristically observed. For the last three symptoms, surgery and radiation are effective therapeutic option...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
50%, 28% and 44% of patients had improvements in fatigue, nausea/vomiting and pain subscales of the EORTC QLQ ‐C30, 42% and 28% of patients achieved improvements in dysphagia and pain subscales of the STO22 at the end of palliative gastric radiotherapy. AbstractTo evaluate the response and quality of life of palliative gastric radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic locally advanced gastric cancer. Patients with bleeding, pain or obstruction and were treated with palliative gastric radiotherapy to a dose of 36  Gy in 12 daily fractions. The primary outcomes were symptom response rates. Secondary outcomes included ...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There are few studies assessing the effects of systemic corticosteroids on cancer-related dyspnoea in adults with cancer. We judged the evidence to be of very low quality that neither supported nor refuted corticosteroid use in this population. Further high-quality studies are needed to determine if corticosteroids are efficacious in this setting. PMID: 30784058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
50%, 28% and 44% of patients had improvements in fatigue, nausea/vomiting and pain subscales of the EORTC QLQ ‐C30, 42% and 28% of patients achieved improvements in dysphagia and pain subscales of the STO22 at the end of palliative gastric radiotherapy. AbstractTo evaluate the response and quality of life of palliative gastric radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic locally advanced gastric cancer. Patients with bleeding, pain or obstruction and were treated with palliative gastric radiotherapy to a dose of 36  Gy in 12 daily fractions. The primary outcomes were symptom response rates. Secondary outcomes included ...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: PA was correlated with physical condition, but not with psychological well-being. PMID: 30686055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Nutrition and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Nutr Cancer Source Type: research
Authors: Turgeman I, Bar-Sela G Abstract INTRODUCTION: A flowering plant of variegated ingredients and psychoactive qualities, Cannabis has long been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. Regulatory approvals have been gained across a broad range of palliative and therapeutic indications, and in some cases, included in standard treatment guidelines. Areas covered: The use of Cannabis and cannabinoid-based-medicines in oncology is summarized in this article. Cannabinoids were classified according to natural and synthetic subtypes and their mechanisms of action expounded. The variability of available products...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
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