Street rabies virus strains associated with insectivorous bats are less pathogenic than strains isolated from other reservoirs

Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Natalia Langenfeld Fuoco, Elaine Raniero Fernandes, Sandriana dos Ramos Silva, Fernanda Guedes Luiz, Orlando Garcia Ribeiro, Iana Suly Santos KatzAbstractRabies is a fatal and viral zoonosis that causes acute, progressive encephalitis and remains an important concern in public health. In the last few years, there has been a change in the epidemiological profile of rabies after implementing canine rabies control in the Americas, which has led to a significant increase in both human and pet cases of rabies associated with insectivorous bats. Thus, it is important to understand the pathogenesis caused by Rabies virus (RABV) isolates from insectivorous bats. Viral growth kinetics, cell-to-cell spread and virus uptake in vitro were analyzed for RABV isolates from Eptesicus furiralis and Myotis nigricans. For pathogenesis evaluation, mice were inoculated with RABV isolates from Eptesicus furiralis and Myotis nigricans, and clinical signs were observed for 40 days. We observed that the insectivorous bat strains showed a higher replication rate, faster cell-to-cell spread and delayed virus uptake in N2a cells. Furthermore, after the first sign of a clinical infection, mice infected with Myotis nigricans and Eptesicus furiralis isolates succumbed rapidly (6 ± 9 days) compared with RABV strains associated with other reservoirs. Our results show that the insectivorous bat RABV strains are l...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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We present the case of a 25-year-old woman admitted due to behavioral disorders, generalized paresthesiasand acute respiratory deterioration compatible with a respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring orotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation and empirical initiation of antibiotic and antiviral therapy. Chest tomography showed pneumomediastinum and changes suggestive of pulmonary infection. In the presence of neurological symptoms, a central nervous system (CNS) infection was suspected and the cerebrospinal fluid showed no pleocytosis, hiperproteinorrachy without glucose consumption; cranial CT scan was normal. D...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
With a planned annual capacity of 585 million, the project proposed to make pentavalent, or five-in-one, combination vaccine, BCG vaccine, and vaccines to prevent measles, hepatitis B, human rabies, Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the first phase, which was to be commissioned by 2010.
Source: The Economic Times - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
ave;s Leblond Pierre Tritz Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending on the etiological agent and its virulence. However, definite diagnosis generally requires the implementation of combinations of direct and/or indirect screening assays in specialized laboratories. The equine practitioner, involved in a mi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractThe role of vaccination in the development of Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) is controversial, although cases of GBS have been reported following a wide range of vaccines. A nested case–control study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015 in three Chinese cities. Four controls were matched to a case by gender, age, address and index date. An independent expert committee validated the diagnoses of cases and controls according to the Brighton Collaboration GBS case definition. Data on vaccinations were obtained from computerized vaccination records. Causal relations were assessed by conditi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Kentaro Yamada, Kazuko Noguchi, Kazunori Kimitsuki, Ryo Kaimori, Nobuo Saito, Takashi Komeno, Nozomi Nakajima, Yousuke Furuta, Akira NishizonoAbstractRabies virus (RABV) is a highly neurotropic virus and the causative agent of rabies, an encephalitis with an almost 100% case-fatality rate that remains incurable after the onset of symptoms. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against RNA viruses, has been shown to be effective against RABV in vitro but ineffective in vivo. We hypothesized that favipiravir is effective in ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Rabies virus (RABV) is a highly neurotropic virus and the causative agent of rabies, an encephalitis with an almost 100% case-fatality rate that remains incurable after the onset of symptoms. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against RNA viruses, has been shown to be effective against RABV in vitro but ineffective in vivo. We hypothesized that favipiravir is effective in infected mice when RABV replicates in the peripheral tissues/nerves but not after virus neuroinvasion. We attempted to clarify this point in this study using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We generated a recombinant R...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Discussion Dengue is an important arboviral infection that affects about 40% of the world population. It is found mainly in topical and subtropical areas of the world mainly in developing countries but it range is spreading including the United States. A review of common arboviruses can be found here. It is a flaviavirus with 4 distinct serotypes named DENV-1 through DENV-4 and is spread by A. aegypti a day biting mosquito. Infection with one serotype confers immunity to that serotype but not the others. It does offer some protection for cross-infection but this only lasts a few months. Incubation period is 3-14 days with ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Chandrakant M Bokade, Vishal S Gajimwar, Rajkumar M Meshram, Swapnil B WathoreAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2019 22(3):319-321 Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease transmitted primarily by dogs, cats, and bats, which accounts for approximately 59,000 deaths globally per year. An 8-year-old boy from rural central India developed an atypical presentation of rabies following a street dog bite in spite of receiving postexposure prophylaxis and proper care of Category III wounds. A diagnosis of rabies was made on the basis of clinical background, neuroimaging finding, excess antibody titer, detection of rabies viral anti...
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Zoé Lama, Yves Gaudin, Danielle Blondel, Cécile Lagaudriere-GesbertAbstractRabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans and animals and still kills up to 59,000 people worldwide every year. To date, only preventive or post-exposure vaccination protects against the disease but therapeutics are missing. After screening a library of 80 kinases inhibitors, we identified two compounds as potent inhibitors of RABV infection: Tyrphostin 9 and Rottlerin. Mechanism of action studies show that both i...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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