Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality

AbstractPurpose of ReviewTrimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite produced from choline and phosphatidylcholine. Trimethylamine N-oxide was found associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and thrombosis in vitro and in vivo. We summarized available clinical studies which investigated TMAO ’s role in predicting prognostic outcomes, including mortality, in patients with cardiovascular diseases.Recent FindingsIn chronic kidney disease cohorts, higher TMAO levels were significantly associated with higher mortality from 1.18 to 4.32 folds. Higher TMAO levels were not significantly associated with mortality in patient undergoing dialysis. In patients with peripheral artery disease, higher TMAO levels were associated with higher overall mortality from 1.38 to 2.06 folds. In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher TMAO levels were significantly associated with higher overall mortality 2.07 to 2.7 folds. In patients with heart failure, higher TMAO levels were associated with higher mortality or cardiac transplantation 1.18 to 1.79 folds.SummaryTMAO levels could potentially be integrated to existed risk stratification tools and could lead to novel prevention and treatment approaches to cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, more studies would be needed to clarify predictive value of TMAO to specific groups of patients. Mechanisms how TMAO affect atherosclerosis and confounding effects of TMAO with traditional cardiovascular parameters should also be furth...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

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Publication date: June 2020Source: Microchemical Journal, Volume 155Author(s): Karolina Nowak, Marcin Zawadzki, Tomasz JurekAbstractPostmortem diagnosis of hyperglycaemia is a challenge in forensic medicine. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is considered one of the markers providing an alternative to postmortem determinations of glucose concentration. On the other hand, glycated albumin (GA) may be determined in cases of difficulty in determining HbA1c.The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the usefulness of methods enabling determination of HbA1c an GA in postmortem material (HbA1c–peripheral blood, GA&ndas...
Source: Microchemical Journal - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
ABSTRACT: Introduction: In high-income countries, persons of high socioeconomic status (SES) have a lower cardiovascular risk. However, in middle and low-income countries, the results are controversial. Objective: To evaluate the association between family income and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults. Methods: A total of 2,063 individuals of a birth cohort initiated in 1978/79 in the city of Ribeir ão Preto, Brazil, were evaluated at age of 23/25 years. Cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The findings, such as the inverse relationship with tuberculosis treatment discontinuation in the group of people with comorbidity, reinforce the importance of integrated actions in health services to change the scenario of this challenging comorbidity.
Source: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: The question of whether there is daytime time variation in diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) has not been clearly answered. Moreover, it is unclear whether a potential diurnal variation in DIT is preserved during hypocaloric nutrition. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that DIT varies depending on the time of day and explored whether this physiological regulation is preserved after low-calorie compared with high-calorie intake. DESIGN: Under blinded conditions, 16 normal-weight men twice underwent a 3-day in-laboratory, randomized, crossover study. Volunteers consumed a predetermined low-cal...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Urology Case ReportsAuthor(s): Tomotaka Yamazaki, Hiroyuki Shirai, Jun Yashima, Tamotsu TojimbaraAbstractThe patient was a 41-year-old male who had been maintained on extended-hours hemodialysis for 297 months. Despite of long-term hemodialysis vintage, he had no vascular calcification and ectopic calcification. His kidney graft did not experience rejection or other complications 18 months after the cadaveric kidney transplant. Previous reports indicated that graft survival of extended-hours hemodialysis patients did not differ from conventional hemodialysis. Howev...
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
We report outcomes of our initial experience with LP in 38 children from 2 months of age. Materials and Methods From June 2015 to December 2017 38 children aged 2-60 months (mean age 1.7 years) underwent LP for correction of PUJ obstruction. The mean pre operative anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis (APD) was 43,5mm and all patients had hydronephrosis (APD 21.4-76 mm) and obstructed curve on diuretic renogram. Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty was the performed technique. Results are reported. Results Mean operative time was 107 minutes (70-180) with no conversion to open procedure. Pain control was needed mainly in the ...
Source: International Braz J Urol - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing numbers of deaths on the transplant waiting list is associated with an expanding supply-demand deficit in transplantable organs. There is consequent interest in reviewing both donor eligibility after death from traumatic brain...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Adolescents with diabetes are at increased risk for depression and anxiety, which when untreated negatively affects diabetes control. During a 6-month period, the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4) screening tool was utilized. ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between cancer diagnosis and depression and suicidal ideation in a population-based cohort in the United States. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination S...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news
Authors: Timofte I, Tonelli A, Diaz-Abad M, Verceles A, Ladikos N, Iacono A, Terrin ML, Wijesinha M, Akindipe O, Baz M Abstract The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a useful tool to predict outcomes in patients with advanced lung diseases. Greater distance walked has been shown to have more favorable prognostic value compared to other recorded variables.  We reviewed the medical records of 164 patients with advanced lung disease who underwent lung transplant evaluation. Results of the 6MWT (distance walked, oxygen required, and mean gait speed) were recorded and analyzed with respect to mortality. 6MWT mean oxyg...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research
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