Contextual influences in decoding pain expressions: effects of patient age, informational priming, and observer characteristics

We aimed to examine the effects of contextual factors (ie, observers' training background and priming texts) on decoding facial pain expressions of younger and older adults. A total of 165 participants (82 nursing students and 83 nonhealth professionals) were randomly assigned to one of 3 priming conditions: (1) information about the possibility of secondary gain (misuse); (2) information about the frequency and undertreatment of pain in the older adult (undertreatment); or (3) neutral information (control). Subsequently, participants viewed 8 videos of older adults and 8 videos of younger adults undergoing a discomforting physical therapy examination. Participants rated their perception of each patient's pain intensity, unpleasantness, and condition severity. They also rated their willingness to help, sympathy level, patient deservingness of financial compensation, and how negatively/positively they feel towards the patient (ie, valence). Results demonstrated that observers ascribed greater levels of pain and other indicators (eg, sympathy and help) to older compared with younger patients. An interaction between observer type and patient age demonstrated that nursing students endorsed higher ratings of younger adults' pain compared with other students. In addition, observers in the undertreatment priming condition reported more positive valence towards older patients. By contrast, priming observers with the misuse text attenuated their valence ratings towards younger patient...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewMany studies have demonstrated that discogenic low back pain is the most common type of chronic low back pain (CLBP), one of the major causes of disability, and has a major socioeconomic impact. Our aim is to review present therapeutic interventions for discogenic low back pain.Recent FindingsThere are a multitude of treatments used in clinical practice to treat CLBP, but there is continued debate and lack of consensus among clinicians and the policy makers as to which modality is the best approach. Based on controlled evaluations, lumbar intervertebral discs have been shown to be the source of chr...
Source: Current Pain and Headache Reports - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Purpose of review To describe the principles of pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT), review the evidence for PFPT as a treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction, and summarize the current recommendations for PFPT as a first-line conservative treatment option for pelvic floor disorders. Recent findings Pelvic floor dysfunction can cause voiding and defecation problems, pelvic organ prolapse (POP), sexual dysfunction, and pelvic pain. PFPT is a program of functional retraining to improve pelvic floor muscle strength, endurance, power, and relaxation in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction. Based on the available evidenc...
Source: Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: UROGYNECOLOGY: Edited by Kavita Mishra Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to identify the coupling relationships through which sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joint motions contribute to scapulothoracic UR. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: Sixty participants were enrolled in this study; 30 had current shoulder pain, and 30 had no history of shoulder symptoms. Shoulder complex kinematics were quantified using single-plane fluoroscopy and 2D/3D shape matching and were described as finite helical displacements for 30-degree phases of humerothoracic elevation (30°-60°, 60°-90°, and 90°-120°). A c...
Source: Physical Therapy - Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Tags: Phys Ther Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There is low-quality evidence that KT has a beneficial role in pain reduction and disability improvement for patients with CNLBP. More high-quality studies are required to confirm the effects of KT on CNLBP. PMID: 31696916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Physical Therapy - Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Tags: Phys Ther Source Type: research
ConclusionThe results of the present metanalysis support a paradigm shift in arthrogenous TMJ disorder treatment. There is a new evidence (though on a very low to moderate quality level) that minimally invasive procedures, particularly in combination with IAI of adjuvant pharmacological agents (PRP, HA or CS), are significantly more effective than conservative treatments for both pain reduction and improvement of MMO in both short (≤5 months) and intermediate term (6 months to 4 years) periods. In contrast to traditional concepts mandating exhaustion of conservative treatment options, minimally invasive procedures, ther...
Source: Journal of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Discussion: This case report describes the use of MSK US imaging as part of the clinical decision-making process when treating a patient with cervicogenic headaches. This case illustrates the successful management using manual therapy to restore position, mobility, decrease muscle tone, and normalize upright posture. Complementary research is necessary to further validate MSK US imaging as the preferred method to objectivize joint mobility and guide decision-making. Additionally, the cause-effect relationship between the treatment and positive outcomes in this case report has to be further validated. PMID: 31686564 [P...
Source: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice - Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Tags: Physiother Theory Pract Source Type: research
J Knee Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1700840Peripheral nerve blocks such as a femoral + sciatic block have demonstrated significant pain relief following TKA. However, these nerve blocks have residual motor deficits which prevent immediate postoperative ambulation. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients undergoing primary TKA with femoral and sciatic (Fem + Sci) motor nerve blocks versus an adductor canal and the interspace between the popliteal artery and the capsule of the posterior knee and adductor canal block (IPACK + ACB) sensory nerve blocks. A total of 100...
Source: Journal of Knee Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
DiscussionOur results indicate that LIA and the adductor canal blockade demonstrated the same efficacy for the control of postoperative pain and rehabilitation.ResumenIntroducciónEl manejo del dolor posoperatorio en la cirugía de reemplazos articulares representa un desafío. Por ello el advenimiento de nuevas estrategias en el manejo del dolor como la analgesia por infiltración local (LIA) y el bloqueo del canal de los aductores, han permitido un adecuado control del dolor posoperatorio y con ello la rehabilitación temprana del paciente en cirugía de reemplazo articular.Materiales ...
Source: Revista Espanola de Cirugia Ortopedica y Traumatologia - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Conclusion: The severity of clinical manifestations and radiographic area changes may affect functional ability and the quality of life in knee OA patients living in rural areas, which requires adequate treatment and physical therapy. PMID: 31662813 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Pain Research and Management - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Pain Res Manag Source Type: research
Abstract A 30-year-old woman was referred to physical therapy for bilateral shoulder and thoracic spine pain concurrent with loss of range of motion. Notable medical history included surgical removal of a pituitary adenoma that had resulted in excessive growth hormone secretion, developing into acromegaly with hallmark physical features. Following examination, radiographs were requested to evaluate the extent of arthropathies associated with acromegaly. Radiographs revealed advanced arthropathies of the bilateral acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints, along with loss of disc height and anterolisthesis througho...
Source: Physical Therapy - Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Tags: J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Source Type: research
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