Focal Epilepsy: Immunologic and Inflammatory Mechanisms

There is increasing evidence documenting activation of inflammatory processes in focal epilepsy. This review article summarizes current data regarding inflammatory processes in patients with symptomatic partial epilepsies such as mesial temporal sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, and Rasmussen's encephalitis. We have also reviewed several neuronal surface antibody–associated syndromes, which have been recently described with focal seizures as an important part of the presentation, such as antibody-associated limbic encephalitis and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor antibody syndrome.
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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Authors: Jang Y, Kim DW, Yang KI, Byun JI, Seo JG, No YJ, Kang KW, Kim D, Kim KT, Cho YW, Lee ST, Drug Committee of Korean Epilepsy Society Abstract Autoimmune epilepsy is a newly emerging area of epilepsy. The concept of "autoimmune" as an etiology has recently been revisited thanks to advances in autoimmune encephalitis and precision medicine with immunotherapies. Autoimmune epilepsy presents with specific clinical manifestations, and various diagnostic approaches including cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neuroimaging, and autoantibody tests are essential for its differential diagnosis. The diagnosis is o...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
We present a case of LGI1 encephalitis only partially responsive to immunotherapy with eventual complete resolution after resection of a squamous cell lung carcinoma.
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Dystonia, Paraneoplastic syndrome, All Epilepsy/Seizures Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research
Abstract The concept of brain inflammation and its role in epilepsy has much evolved during the last 2 decades since my original Epilepsy Currents commentary,1 and even more since its first description in autoptic tissue from Rasmussen's encephalitis or in epilepsies developing after central nervous system (CNS) infections. The new vision stems from in-depth investigations carried out since 1999 in preclinical models of provoked seizures and acquired epilepsies and in human focal epilepsies.2 This commentary reports my subjective historical perspective of the progress in the field, also considering if predictions ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research
The prevalence of epilepsy is approximately 0.5 –1.0% worldwide. One-third of affected people have poor seizure control [1]. Some patients with intractable seizures seek surgical interventions, but these treatments are ineffective because of unknown aetiologies [2,3]. Many studies emphasized the role of autoimmunity in epileptogenesis [4]. The latest International League Against Epilepsy aetiology classification recognized autoimmune epilepsy as a distinct entity for the first time [5]. Although immune disorders, such as autoimmune encephalitis and systemic lupus erythematosus show symptoms of seizures, this study ex...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions We suggest that in the description of a paraneoplastic case, an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis can be dated back as far as to the 19th century, with an especially rare type of resolution: the disappearance of the symptoms after the spontaneous elimination of an ovarian teratoma.
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Electroencephalogram abnormalities are seen in anti-LGI1 autoimmune encephalitis with epileptiform discharges as the most common finding followed by focal slowing. These findings were most frequently seen arising in the temporal region. Further studies using a standardized protocol focusing on electroencephalographic findings in anti-LGI1 encephalitis with clinical correlation to disease stage and treatment outcomes in terms of seizure control and memory and cognitive function are needed. Particular attention on ictal electrodecremental activity during FBDS should be done in studies with a larger sample size. ...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
AbstractThe recent pandemic outbreak of coronavirus is pathogenic and a highly transmittable viral infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). In this time of ongoing pandemic, many emerging reports suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 has inimical effects on neurological functions, and even causes serious neurological damage. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 include headache, dizziness, depression, anosmia, encephalitis, stroke, epileptic seizures, and Guillain-Barre syndrome along with many others. The involvement of the CNS may be related with poor prognosis and disease wo...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study was to explore clinical characteristics of cognitive impairment and one year outcome in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical informationand cognitive impairment features of 21 patients admitted to the Nanjing Brain Hospital who had been diagnosed with anti-LGI1encephalitis from 2016 to 2019. At the time of onsetof hospitalizationand one year after discharge, the cognitive functions in these patients were assessed using two cognitive screening tools - Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B). Results: Among the 21 p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our series demonstrated the dramatic efficacy of systematic ACV prophylaxis during all cranial surgeries. Moreover, our results on epilepsy, together with those of the literature, encourage more consideration regarding epilepsy surgery in this specific etiology. All types of surgical procedures (curative or palliative) can be offered to the patients, but in the case of focal surgery, due to the poor anatomical limits, invasive recordings are highly recommended. PMID: 32868196 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Eur J Paediatr Neurol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2020Source: SeizureAuthor(s): Benjamin Cretin, Mathias Bilger, Nathalie Philippi, Frederic Blanc
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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