Emerging Research on the Implications of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Coronary Heart Disease

AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) is known to be an increasing cause of mortality among women, particularly postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a topic that has been investigated over the past decade for its known impact on the cardiovascular system. This review summarizes the evidence and current opinion on the associations between HRT and CVD, evidence both supporting and against HRT use as a prevention to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD).Recent FindingsThe majority of the new data available suggests the use of HRT has the potential to be more beneficial in the prevention of CVD if started in women at younger ages. Current studies also suggest that while starting HRT in older postmenopausal women may be associated with an initial slight increase in CVD, the overall lifetime occurrence rate is not increased. Several studies have also started to use the “timing hypothesis” to suggest that HRT initiated soon after menopause has the potential of being the greatest cardiovascular benefit to the patient. Overall, the data support the finding that HRT should be used only for symptomatic treatment, not in an attempt to slow progression of CVD.SummaryCurrent evidence does not support the use of HRT for either primary or secondary prevention of CHD. HRT has different implications based on the temporal relationship in which it is initiated in relation to the onset of menopause. Overall, the use of HRT should be an i...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Horvath S Abstract Telomere length (TL) is associated with several aging-related diseases. Here, we present a DNA methylation estimator of TL (DNAmTL) based on 140 CpGs. Leukocyte DNAmTL is applicable across the entire age spectrum and is more strongly associated with age than measured leukocyte TL (LTL) (r ~-0.75 for DNAmTL versus r ~ -0.35 for LTL). Leukocyte DNAmTL outperforms LTL in predicting: i) time-to-death (p=2.5E-20), ii) time-to-coronary heart disease (p=6.6E-5), iii) time-to-congestive heart failure (p=3.5E-6), and iv) association with smoking history (p=1.21E-17). These associations are further valid...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
Conclusions: CaD did not consistently modify the effect of CEE therapy or CEE + MPA therapy on CVD events. However, the increased risk of stroke due to CEE therapy appears to be mitigated by CaD supplementation. In contrast, CaD supplementation did not influence the risk of stroke due to CEE + MPA.
Source: Menopause - Category: OBGYN Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Conclusions: After controlling for potential confounding variables, higher perceived social support is not associated with incident CHD or CVD. However, among women free of CVD at baseline, perceived social support is associated with a slightly lower risk of all-cause mortality.
Source: Menopause - Category: OBGYN Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive ability of obesity indices derived by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regarding coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: DXA total body scans were performed on 71 consecutive postmenopausal women who were referred for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Twenty-four women with CHD diagnosed by MPI were considered as cases, whereas the remaining 47 women with normal MPI results were considered as controls. Biochemical markers, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were also recorded for all women and correlated to DXA adiposity indices. Rec...
Source: Menopause - Category: OBGYN Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Conclusions Aging leads to a progressive decrease in androgen production that, in turn, leads to the development of LOH, defined by significant low T serum levels (in the lowest quartile) in the presence of signs and symptoms of hypogonadism (51). LOH could be due to both testicular and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction (32), and ED is one of its main symptoms. ED in LOH is linked to increased oxidative stress, subclinical inflammation, and subsequent endothelial dysfunction (101). In elderly men, it has been shown that LOH is also linked to lower cAMP pool and to an alteration of the cGMP signaling pathway. PDE5 gene l...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
A new study found that age at menopause accounts for 10% of the link between menopause and coronary heart disease. Get more details in this quick slideshow.  
Source: ConsultantLive - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Women ' s Health Source Type: news
AbstractBackgroundEarlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors.MethodsWe used data from EPIC-CVD, a case –cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 1...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
February 20, 2019—(BRONX, N.Y.)—A study led byAlbert Einstein College of Medicine researchers found a link between daily consumption of multiple diet drinks and higher stroke risk among post-menopausal women. The association was stronger in obese women and African-American women. The study was published February 14 inStroke, a journal of the American Heart Association.
Source: Einstein News - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
FRIDAY, Feb. 15, 2019 -- Among postmenopausal women, consumption of artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) is associated with an increased risk for stroke, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality, according to a study published online Feb....
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
We examined whether premenopausal CVD events are associated with early age at menopause. We pooled the individual data of 177,131 women from nine studies. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate multivariable relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between age at onset of premenopausal CVD events —including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke—and age at natural menopause. Altogether 1561 (0.9%) premenopausal participants reported CVD events (including 1130 CHD and 469 stroke) at a mean age of 41.3 years. Compared with women without any premen...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
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