The state of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep.

The state of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep. Arch Ital Biol. 2018 Sep 01;156(3):127-136 Authors: Bosman C, Aldunate N Abstract Wakefulness and sleep are two qualitatively different behavioral states. The mechanisms underlying these behavioral states can be traced back to the coordinated functioning of cortical microcircuits. The stereotypical activity of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep shapes a cortical state, defined as an organized neuronal network functioning across time. Cortical microcircuits are conformed by pyramidal cells and several interneurons, organized into a six-layer structure that contains well defined connections across excitatory and inhibitory cells. In this organization, inhibitory interneurons play an important role in the transitions between wakefulness and sleep, through their actions in the regulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance. Yet, we do not know what mechanisms underlie cortical microcircuits transitions between different behavioral states. The aim of this review is to examine how the action of specific interneurons can shape the outcome of cortical microcircuits. We discuss the role of interneurons, as main modulators of sleep and wake states and the communication regimes of microcircuits observed during different cortical states. The literature here reviewed suggests the importance of inhibitory interneurons as the main modulator of the function of cortical microcircuits. We f...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Bowen Deng, Qi Li, Xinxing Liu, Yue Cao, Bingfeng Li, Yongjun Qian, Rui Xu, Renbo Mao, Enxing Zhou, Wenxia Zhang, Juan Huang, Yi RaoSummaryWe define the chemoconnectome (CCT) as the entire set of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neuropeptides, and their receptors underlying chemotransmission in an animal. We have generated knockout lines of Drosophila CCT genes for functional investigations and knockin lines containing Gal4 and other tools for examining gene expression and manipulating neuronal activities, with a versatile platform allowing gene...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Far more Medicare patients take insomnia medications than are actually diagnosed with insomnia by a physician, suggesting that insomnia is significantly underdiagnosed in this population despite treatment, according to astudy in theAmerican Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.Jennifer S. Albrecht, Ph.D., of the University of Maryland School of Medicine and colleagues analyzed data from a random sample of 5% of patients who had at least 10 months of continuous Medicare coverage between 2006 and 2013. They found that over the eight years studied, insomnia diagnoses in this population increased from 3.9% to 6.2%. They also found ...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry benzodiazepines diagnosis insomnia Jennifer S. Albrecht Medicare medications Source Type: research
In this study, it was aimed to analyze the relationship between the severity of OSAS and vitamin-D levels among the participants whose features affecting serum vit-D levels were minimised. Serum 25-OH vitamin-D levels in 121 OSAS Male patients diagnosed by polysomnography without any systemic disease or vitamin-D supplement that may effect the vitamin-D metabolism were measured. The study was conducted in winter (latitude: 41°). Anthropometric measures and biochemical tests were also performed. The distribution of vitamin-D levels was determined as severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency. Apne...
Source: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research - Category: Nutrition Tags: Int J Vitam Nutr Res Source Type: research
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Source: Quality of Life Research - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
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Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Social media Science Digital media Children Society UK news Sleep Health & wellbeing Life and style Education Source Type: news
The objective of this study was thus to determine whether fatigue in PD was associated with structural changes in gray or white matter and explore whether these changes were similar in older adults without PD. Magnetic resonance imaging (T1 weighted) and diffusion tensor imaging were performed in 60 patients with PD (17 females; age = 67.58 ± 5.51; disease duration = 5.67 ± 5.83 years) and 41 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. FSL image processing was used to measure gray matter volume, fractional anisotropy, and leukoariosis differences. Voxel-based morphometry confirmed gray matter lo...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and sleep monitoring in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Exp Ther Med. 2019 Mar;17(3):1766-1770 Authors: Ming H, Tian A, Liu B, Hu Y, Liu C, Chen R, Cheng L Abstract The present study investigated the changes of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and sleep ability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). A total of 684 patients who were admitted to Xuzhou Central Hospital between June 2012 and June 2016 were enrolled to serve as the experimental group and 192 heal...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
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Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Sleep / Sleep Disorders / Insomnia Source Type: news
When it comes to the right amount of screen time, exercise, and sleep, research published this month in JAMA Pediatrics finds only 5% of teens are meeting guidelines, and girls are less likely to do so than boys.
Source: WebMD Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Reading about yawning makes people yawn. You are probably yawning right now.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Yawning Sleep Source Type: news
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