A Spatial Analysis of Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis in Relation to Public Water Supply Distribution in North West England

Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): N.F. Reeve, P.J. Diggle, K. Lamden, T. KeeganAbstractGiardia and Cryptosporidium are both waterborne parasites and leading causes of gastroenteritis. Although specimens from diarrhoeic patients are routinely examined for Cryptosporidium, they are often not examined for Giardia so many cases go undiagnosed. Since 2002, all faecal specimens in Central Lancashire have been tested for infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the factors contributing to giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, including evidence of transmission via drinking water. Our analysis found a higher risk of both conditions for young children and a second peak in risk of giardiasis in adults. There was a significantly higher risk of giardiasis for males and a higher risk of cryptosporidiosis for females. The geographical location was significant, with an increased risk in the north. Residence in an area with increased supply from one water treatment works was a significant predictor for cryptosporidiosis.
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsAll three RDTs forCryptosporidium spp. andGiardia duodenalis evaluated in this study have a moderate sensitivity, but sufficient specificity. The main value of the RDTs is within their rapidness and their usefulness as screening assays in surveys for diarrhoea.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Authors: Savaş Şen Z, Taşar MA, Demirel Kaya F, Güneş A, Vezir E, Hızarcıoğlu Gülşen H Abstract Cryptosporidium spp. is one of the leading causes of parasitic diarrhea. It is the most common parasite in humans all over the world with Giardia. Cryptosporidium is an important cause of chronic diarrhea in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Patients with normal immune system may have an asymptomatic course or clinical presentation such as acute watery diarrhea without blood and persistent diarrhea. The severity and duration of the disease may be a re...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Conclusion: To our knowledge, no studies have been done in these areas before. The anthroponotic transmission has an important role in giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in this studied area. PMID: 31673254 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Iran J Parasitol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium and Giardia were frequently associated with diarrhea in children in a remote desert agricultural community with many opportunities for infection. Contact with animals, foreign workers from Africa, fresh vegetables and drinking water sources contaminated with sewage materials are the likely modes of transmission of both organisms. PMID: 31085111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Int J Hyg Environ Health Source Type: research
Abstract Marine bivalve shellfish are of public health interest because they can accumulate pollutants in their tissues. As they are usually consumed raw or lightly cooked, they are considered to be a possible source of foodborne infections, including giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis. Although data indicating contamination of shellfish with Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts have been published, comparing results from different studies is difficult, as there is no standardized protocol for the detection and quantification of these parasites in mussels, and different researchers have used different analytica...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research
Authors: Chifunda K, Kelly P Abstract Parasitic infections of the gut have major implications for child health, but many questions remain unanswered. Protozoal parasites, especially cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, cause diarrhoea and contribute to impaired growth, neurocognitive development and mortality. Entamoeba histolytica causes dysentery and may have more subtle effects on child growth. Helminth infections are mostly asymptomatic, and untargeted mass deworming has not been shown to be beneficial. However, children with heavy infections certainly benefit from antihelminthic treatment. Hepatosplenic schistoso...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research
This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns ofCryptosporidium andGiardia parasites. Here, we describe the population heterogeneity of genotypic groups withinCryptosporidium andGiardia present in New Zealand using gp60 andgdh markers to compare the observed variation with other countries around the globe. Four species ofCryptosporidium were identified in New Zealand using gp60 (C.hominis,C.parvum,C.cuniculus andC.erinacei) and one species ofGiardia (G.intestinalis) withgdh. These species have been reported worldwide and there are not un...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
inger J Abstract Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections. In a longitudinal study conduc...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Authors: Ghenghesh KS, Ghanghish K, BenDarif ET, Shembesh K, Franka E Abstract Introduction The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations. Methods The data were obtained by an English language literature search of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms 'intestinal parasites and ...
Source: Libyan Journal of Medicine - Category: Journals (General) Tags: Libyan J Med Source Type: research
, Carmena D Abstract Domestic dogs and cats may act as natural reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic pathogens, including the enteric parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., the most relevant protozoan species causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was conducted in an animal rescue centre in the province of Álava (Northern Spain). A total of 194 and 65 faecal dropping samples from individual dogs and cats, respectively, were collected between Novemb...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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