Association of IL-36 γ with tertiary lymphoid structures and inflammatory immune infiltrates in human colorectal cancer

AbstractIL-1 family cytokines play a dual role in the gut, with different family members contributing either protective or pathogenic effects. IL-36 γ is an IL-1 family cytokine involved in polarizing type-1 immune responses. However, its function in the gut, including in colorectal cancer pathogenesis, is not well appreciated. In a murine model of colon carcinoma, IL-36γ controls tertiary lymphoid structure formation and promotes a type-1 imm une response concurrently with a decrease in expression of immune checkpoint molecules in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that IL-36γ plays a similar role in driving a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human colorectal cancer. We analyzed a cohort of 33 primary colorectal carcinoma tum ors using imaging, flow cytometry, and transcriptomics to determine the pattern and role of IL-36γ expression in this disease. In the colorectal tumor microenvironment, we observed IL-36γ to be predominantly expressed by M1 macrophages and cells of the vasculature, including smooth muscle cells an d high endothelial venules. This pattern of IL-36γ expression is associated with a CD4+ central memory T cell infiltrate and an increased density of B cells in tertiary lymphoid structures, as well as with markers of fibrosis. Conversely, expression of the antagonist to IL-36 signaling, IL-1F5, was associated with intratumoral expression of checkpoint molecules, including PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA4, which can suppress...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data demonstrate that the synergistic combination of entinostat, N-803, and vaccine elicits potent anti-tumor activity by generating a more inflamed TME. These findings thus form the rationale for the use of this combination of agents for patients harboring poorly or non-inflamed solid carcinomas. PMID: 31645354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
ConclusionsDevelopment of PD-1 B-cell vaccine was successful, showing no evidence of toxicity or autoimmunity in mice, rabbits and beagle dogs. The combination vaccines could provide improved outcomes in early stage disease sparing patients the toxicity of chemotherapy. A phase 1 clinical trial with the PD-1 vaccine is under planning.Legal entity responsible for the studyThe authors.FundingNIH; Imugene.DisclosureAll authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we examined the role of endogenously produced IL-33 in the colon-26 tumor model, in which involvement of the IL-33:ST2 pathway was negligible on the tumor side. We found that the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8+ T cells, and IFN-γ expression by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (T cell activation) were impaired in IL-33-deficient mice. Overall antitumor responses, assessed by tumor growth and IFN-γ expression by tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, were also impaired, even after Treg adjustment prior to tumor inoculation. These results indicate that endogenous IL-33 augmented CD8+ T cell-me...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
The human neurotropic virus JCPyV, a member of the Polyomaviridiae family, is the opportunistic infectious agent of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal disease seen in severe immunosuppressive conditions and, during the last decade, in patients undergoing immunotherapy. JCPyV is a ubiquitous pathogen with up to 85% of the adult population word-wide exhibiting antibodies against it. Early experiments demonstrated that direct inoculation of JCPyV into the brain of different species resulted in the development of brain tumors and other neuroectodermal-derived neoplasias. Later, several reports showed the...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We present a patient who received nivolumab for heterogeneity of right-sided metastatic colon carcinoma. Intervention: The patient was treated with nivolumab combined with chemotherapy. Outcome: The computed tomography showed mass lesion in the left lobe of liver remained stable while metastasis tumors under envelop of liver were exacerbated after 6 cycles of nivolumab combined with chemotherapy, and later regressed. Lessons: The status of mismatch repair in primary tumor and metastatic liver carcinoma is contradictory but using nivolumab demonstrated encouraging efficacy. This is the first case of pseudo progress...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Amin Reza Nikpoor, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Parvin Zamani, Manouchehr Teymouri, Hamed Gouklani, Ehsan Saburi, Shahrzad Amiri Darban, Ali Badiee, Ali Bahramifar, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Ramezan Ali TaheriAbstractLiposome is one of the promising technologies for antigen delivery in cancer immunotherapies. It seems that the phospholipid content of liposomes can act as immunostimulatory molecules in cancer immunotherapy. In the present study, the immunological properties of different phospholipid content of liposomal antigen deliv...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionIFN-I induces STAT3 activation to activateGzmb expression to enhance CTL effector function to suppress tumor development. Human colorectal carcinoma may use down-regulation of IFNAR1 on CTLs to suppress CTL effector function to evade host cancer immunosurveillance.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive in detecting PD-L1 expression than conventional IHC. This study may provide an important starting point and useful background information for future research about immunotherapy for appendix, stomach and small intestine neuroendocrine carcinomas. PMID: 31128036 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of B.U.ON. - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J BUON Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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