Autoimmune Dementia Autoimmune Dementia

This review summarizes the available evidence concerning the diagnosis and care of autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitis patients with associated cognitive impairment.Seminars in Neurology
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery Journal Article Source Type: news

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Semin Neurol 2018; 38: 303-315 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1660480Dementia refers to an acquired syndrome of intraindividual cognitive decline that ultimately interferes with an individual's ability to manage their usual duties at work or home. As experience with the diagnosis and management of patients with autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitis (AE) has expanded, it has become increasingly apparent that dementia may arise as a subacute or chronic complication of immune-mediated injury to the central nervous system. Progressive memory and thinking problems may represent the first (or only) sign of an underlying autoimmune or ...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Conclusions:Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are associated with antibodies against intracellular neuronal antigens and are often resistant to treatment, whereas autoimmune processes (with or without cancer) have antibodies to cell-surface antigens and respond to immunotherapy. Subacute cognitive decline, new seizures, focal neurologic exam, CSF and MRI features should arouse suspicion. Autoantibodies are often inaccessible to many centers or are absent.Disclosure: Dr. Ahmed has nothing to disclose. Dr. Venkatachalam has nothing to disclose. Dr. Khan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Kentris has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pi...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: General Neurology: Inflammation, Infections, and Autoimmunity Source Type: research
Conclusions:Prolonged suppression of CD20 and B-cell can occur for several years after treatment with rituximab. The persistent hypogammaglobulinemia may interfere with serologic tests of meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis of chronic progressive meningoencephalitis can be challenging and requires systematic approaches, especially in immunocompromised individuals.Disclosure: Dr. Ruthirago has nothing to disclose. Dr. Julayanont has nothing to disclose. Dr. Alderazi has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Zika, Chikungunya, West Nile Virus, and Other Viral Infections II Source Type: research
Here we present a case of definite non-classical paraneoplastic encephalitis with clinical and radiographic (MRI, PET) response after systemic chemotherapy. Our patient was a 67-year-old female with a 50-year history of smoking developing progressive dementia. Her first symptom was memory impairment for which her initial neurologic evaluation was negative, but her MMSE score of 28 yielded the diagnosis of pseudodementia. She was started on citalopram to no avail and subsequently developed hallucinations with paranoid ideation and violent outbursts. She was hospitalized for respiratory distress at a non-affiliated hospital,...
Source: Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: NEURO-IMAGING Source Type: research
Objective: A case report of a young man with rapidly progressive dementia with a positive 14-3-3 brain protein, abnormal PET-FDG brain imaging and literature review of FDG-PET imaging in patients with presumed Cruetzfield-Jakob Disease. Background: The use of PET-FDG imaging has been suggested to provide an additional modality in diagnosing Prion disease, Limbic Encephalitis and Alzheimer’s disease. A patient’s metabolism of FDG is compared to that of the average person’s metabolism, generated from a database comprised of patients above 50 years old, typical of the epidemiology of the diseases above. The ...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Fungal and Other Infectious Disorders Source Type: research
Conclusions: To date, this is the first reported case of autopsy and genetically-confirmed FFI with a positive VGKC-complex autoantibody titer. Although low titers of VGKC-complex antibody may be an incidental finding, its coincidence in this case may have affected the phenotypic presentation of FFI. Global screening for paraneoplastic antibodies may provide important insight into understanding the complex pathophysiology, including the potential role of molecular mimicry, of prion diseases.Disclosure: Dr. Sanamandra has nothing to disclose. Dr. Youn has nothing to disclose. Dr. Maciel has nothing to disclose. Dr. Schrag h...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Aging and Dementia: Atypical Dementia Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: From our case, we would like to emphasize that paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis should be considered among the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia associated with myoclonus, along with other neurodegenerative diseases. Depending on its underlying malignancy, the cognitive impairment may be substantially reversible, despite atrophy of mesial temporal lobes. PMID: 26077183 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica - Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Neurol Taiwan Source Type: research
Conclusions: It is important to consider immune-mediated disorders in the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive neurologic deficits.
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: All Cognitive Disorders/Dementia, Autoimmune diseases, Prion, Paraneoplastic syndrome Article Source Type: research
We report a case of a 59-year old woman who presented with worsening neurological symptoms of two-week duration, and later coma. The combined clinical, serological, and imaging studies suggested a diagnosis of PLE. A chest computed tomographic scan showed a 1.2 cm-diameter mass in the upper lobe of the left lung that was surgically removed and showed SCLC. Following surgery, neurological symptoms rapidly improved, allowing the patient to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. While in remission for both SCLC and PLE, the patient developed pain, soft-tissue swelling, and stiffness in both palms, suggesting the diagnosis of PFPAS. F...
Source: Rare Tumors - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions Good outcomes may occur in ICU-managed autoimmune encephalitis patients. Clinical and testing characteristics are diverse. Comprehensive diagnostics should be pursued to facilitate timely treatment.
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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