Seroprevalence and spatial distribution of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic region in Brazil: how has the situation changed after 10 years?

CONCLUSIONS: The reported data illustrate the circulation of parasites of the genus Leishmania in a canine population.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

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Authors: Çulha G, Kaya T, Gülbol Duran G, Urhan Küçük M, Doğramacı AÇ, Tiyekli Çelik D Abstract Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. In the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in the smear samples, the demonstration of the parasite by microscope remains a gold standard method. However, it becomes difficult to diagnose the parasite since the number of amastigotes in chronic cases with a lesion of one year or longer is very low. Due to many factor such as patients primarily do not ...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Abstract Effective diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, together with the study of vectors and reservoirs, can lead to a better understanding of the parasite transmission dynamics and the development of more efficient control measures. Recent studies have applied new methodologies and biomarkers, and these have contributed to the early and rapid diagnosis of the disease; assessment of success of pharmacological treatments; efficient monitoring of immunosuppressed individuals; and to population screening for field trials of vaccine efficacy. This opinion article proposes an update to the diagnostic to...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
by Chukwunonso O. Nzelu, Hirotomo Kato, Nathan C. Peters Leishmaniasis, caused by protozoan parasites of theLeishmania genus, represents an important health problem in many regions of the world. Lack of effective point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests applicable in resources-limited endemic areas is a critical barrier to effective treatment and control of leishmaniasis. The development of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has provided a new tool towards the development of a POC diagnostic test based on the amplification of pathogen DNA. LAMP does not require a thermocycler, is relatively inexpensive, a...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated cellular and humoral immune responses induced by our newly designed multi-epitope vaccine in BALB/c mice. Four antigenic proteins, including histone H1, sterol 24-c-methyltransferase (SMT),Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHy), andLeishmania-specific antigenic protein (LSAP) were chosen for the prediction of potential immunodominant epitopes. Moreover, to enhance vaccine immunogenicity, two toll-like receptors 4  (TLR4) agonists, resuscitation-promoting factors ofMycobacterium tuberculosis (RpfE and RpfB), were employed as the built-in adjuvants. Immunization with the designed mul...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We report a new case of cutaneous leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania (Mundinia) martiniquensis in a horse in Florida, USA. A 10-year-old neutered male Quarter horse was presented with multifocal to coalescing, raised, ulcerated and oozing, non-healing wounds on both pinnae of several weeks' duration. After a few months, the lesions regressed spontaneously. Biopsies of the lesions were performed with microscopical findings of epidermal hyperplasia with multifocal ulceration and focally extensive, dermal pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous intact and degenerate neutrophils being surrounded by epithelioid macrophages,...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the circulation of L. infantum among sylvatic hosts in Sicily (southern Italy), a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniosis, through serological and molecular tools. Target tissues (skin, spleen, lymph nodes) collected from 71 European rabbits, 2 European hares, 7 red foxes, 11 European wildcats and 1 pin. marten, were qPCR analysed for the detection of L. infantum DNA. Additionally, 40 rabbits, older than one year, were serologically screened for specific anti-Leishmania antibodies. Leishmania infantum was molecularly diagnosed in 5.4% (n = 5) of the examined animals...
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the circulation of L. infantum among sylvatic hosts in Sicily (southern Italy), a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniosis, through serological and molecular tools. Target tissues (skin, spleen, lymph nodes) collected from 71 European rabbits, 2 European hares, 7 red foxes, 11 European wildcats and 1 pine marten, were qPCR analysed for the detection of L. infantum DNA. Additionally, 40 rabbits, older than one year, were serologically screened for specific anti-Leishmania antibodies. Leishmania infantum was molecularly diagnosed in 5.4% (n = 5) of the examined animals (3/71 European r...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of conventional smear cytology (SC), liquid-based cytology (LBC), cell block (CB) stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunocytochemistry (ICC), and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue immunohistochemistry (FFPE–IHC) compared with serology and polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in lymphoid tissue. The use of a preservative medium and centrifugation for cytological samples reduced the number of unsatisfactory artefacts/background. Moreover, LBC allowed excellent cellular preservation and the application of ancill...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
This study showed a high failure rate for HECT-CL thermotherapy in this setting. Leishmania tropica is known to be less sensitive to antileishmanial drugs, more temperature-resistant, and spontaneous healing is slower than that in L. major. More research is needed to identify low-cost, effective, and more patient-friendly treatment for L. tropica. PMID: 31595864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
The Leishmania spp. protozoa are sandfly-borne intracellular parasites that are responsible for the leishmaniases, a complex of diseases with important clinical implication.1 In humans, the major clinical forms are cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, the latter being fatal if untreated. Most leishmanial infections remain asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals; for example, the ratio of subclinical to clinical cases of Leishmania infantum infection has been reported to be around 50:1 in Spain.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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